Weight Gain over the Holidays in Three Countries Link logo

Helander, Elina E;Wansink, Brian;Chieh, Angela

New England Journal of Medicine Volume 375, Issue 12, Pages 1200–1202

  • 572 twiittiä
  • 15 bloggausta
  • 160 uutista
  • 24 Mendeley-lukijaa


Unexpected diversity in socially synchronized rhythms of shorebirds Link logo

Ulla, Martin B.; Valcu, Mihai; Dokter, Adriaan M. .; Dondua, Alexei G.; Kosztolanyi, Andras; Rutten, Anne L.; Helm, Barbara; Sandercock, Brett K.; Casler, Bruce; Ens, Bruno J.; Spiegel, Caleb S.; Hassell, Chris J.; Kuepper, Clemens; Minton, Clive; Burgas , Daniel; Lank, David B.; Payer, David C.; Loktionov, Egor Y.; Nol, Erica; Kwon, Eunbi

Nature Volume 540, Issue 7631, Pages 109–113

  • 536 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 15 uutista
  • 2 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 46 Mendeley-lukijaa

The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential mates, competitors, prey and predators. Individuals can temporally segregate their daily activities (for example, prey avoiding predators, subordinates avoiding dominants) or synchronize their activities (for example, group foraging, communal defence, pairs reproducing or caring for offspring). The behavioural rhythms that emerge from such social synchronization and the underlying evolutionary and ecological drivers that shape them remain poorly understood. Here we investigate these rhythms in the context of biparental care, a particularly sensitive phase of social synchronization where pair members potentially compromise their individual rhythms. Using data from 729 nests of 91 populations of 32 biparentally incubating shorebird species, where parents synchronize to achieve continuous coverage of developing eggs, we report remarkable within- and between-species diversity in incubation rhythms. Between species, the median length of one parent's incubation bout varied from 1-19 h, whereas period length-the time in which a parent's probability to incubate cycles once between its highest and lowest value-varied from 6-43 h. The length of incubation bouts was unrelated to variables reflecting energetic demands, but species relying on crypsis (the ability to avoid detection by other animals) had longer incubation bouts than those that are readily visible or who actively protect their nest against predators. Rhythms entrainable to the 24-h light-dark cycle were less prevalent at high latitudes and absent in 18 species. Our results indicate that even under similar environmental conditions and despite 24-h environmental cues, social synchronization can generate far more diverse behavioural rhythms than expected from studies of individuals in captivity. The risk of predation, not the risk of starvation, may be a key factor underlying the diversity in these rhythms.


Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852-where's the flux? Link logo PDF logo

Boyajian, T. S.; LaCourse, D. M.; Rappaport, S. A.; Fabrycky, D.; Fischer, D. A.; Gandolfi, D.; Kennedy, G. M.; Korhonen, H.; Liu, M. C.; Moor, A.; Olah, K.; Vida, K.; Wyatt, M. C.; Best, W. M. J.; Brewer, J.; Ciesla, F.; Csak, B.; Deeg, H. J.; Dupuy, T. J.; Handler, G.

arXiv Volume 457, Issue 4, Pages 3988–4004

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Planck intermediate results XXX.:The angular power spectrum of polarized dust emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes Link logo PDF logo

Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.

Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • 469 twiittiä
  • 41 bloggausta
  • 40 uutista
  • 6 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 105 Mendeley-lukijaa


DopeLearning:A Computational Approach to Rap Lyrics Generation Link logo PDF logo

Malmi, Eric; Takala, Pyry; Toivonen, Hannu; Raiko, Tapani; Gionis, Aristides

arXiv

  • 468 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 9 uutista
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Confirmation of the topology of the Wendelstein 7-X magnetic field to better than 1:100,000 Open access logo

Pedersen, T. Sunn; Otte, M.; Lazerson, S.; Helander, P.; Bozhenkov, S.; Biedermann, C.; Klinger, T.; Wolf, R. C.; Bosch, H. S.; Abramovic, Ivana; Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Aleynikov, Pavel; Aleynikova, Ksenia; Ali, Adnan; Alonso, Arturo; Anda, Gabor; Andreeva, Tamara; Ascasibar, Enrique; Baldzuhn, Jürgen; Banduch, Martin

Nature Communications

  • 454 twiittiä
  • 7 bloggausta
  • 41 uutista
  • 26 Mendeley-lukijaa

Fusion energy research has in the past 40 years focused primarily on the tokamak concept, but recent advances in plasma theory and computational power have led to renewed interest in stellarators. The largest and most sophisticated stellarator in the world, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), has just started operation, with the aim to show that the earlier weaknesses of this concept have been addressed successfully, and that the intrinsic advantages of the concept persist, also at plasma parameters approaching those of a future fusion power plant. Here we show the first physics results, obtained before plasma operation: that the carefully tailored topology of nested magnetic surfaces needed for good confinement is realized, and that the measured deviations are smaller than one part in 100,000. This is a significant step forward in stellarator research, since it shows that the complicated and delicate magnetic topology can be created and verified with the required accuracy.


Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology? - A Systematic Review Open access logo PDF logo

Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokoon; Choi, Sujin; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

PLoS ONE Volume 11, Issue 10

  • 346 twiittiä
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Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers.


The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea Open access logo

OLSEN JL, ROUZÉ P, VERHELST B, LIN Y-C, BAYER T, COLLEN J, DATTOLO E, DE PAOLI E, DITTAMI S, MAUMUS F, MICHEL G, KERSTING A, LAURITANO C, LOHAUS R, TÖPEL M, TONON T, VANNESTE K, AMIREBRAHIMI M, BRAKEL J, BOSTRÖM C, CHOVATIA M, GRIMWOOD J, JENKINS JW, JÜTERBOCK A, MRAZ A, STAM WT, TICE H, BORNBERG-BAUER E, GREEN P, PEARSON GA, PROCCACINI G, DUARTE CM, SCHMUTZ J, REUSCH TBH & VAN DE PEER, Y

Nature Volume 530, Issue 7590, Pages 331–335

  • 323 twiittiä
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  • 39 uutista
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Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.


Protected species:Norwegian wolf cull will hit genetic diversity Link logo

Immonen, Elina; Husby, Arild

Nature Volume 539, Issue 7627, Pages 31–31

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Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries Open access logo Link logo

Penteriani, Vincenzo; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernandez-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Maria Fedriani, Jose; Sahlen, Veronica; Stoen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; Vicente Lopez-Bao, Jose

Scientific Reports

  • 285 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 36 uutista
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The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.


Community detection in networks: A user guide Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Fortunato, Santo; Hric, Darko

Physics Reports

  • 280 twiittiä
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Population-based metagenomics analysis reveals markers for gut microbiome composition and diversity PDF logo

Zhernakova, Alexandra; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Schirmer, Melanie; Vatanen, Tommi; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vila, Arnau Vich; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Wang, Jun; Imhann, Floris; Brandsma, Eelke; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Joossens, Marie; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Deelen, Patrick; Swertz, Morris A.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Feskens, Edith J M

Science Volume 352, Issue 6285, Pages 565–569

  • 271 twiittiä
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  • 39 uutista
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Deep sequencing of the gut microbiomes of 1135 participants from a Dutch population-based cohort shows relations between the microbiome and 126 exogenous and intrinsic host factors, including 31 intrinsic factors, 12 diseases, 19 drug groups, 4 smoking categories, and 60 dietary factors. These factors collectively explain 18.7% of the variation seen in the interindividual distance of microbial composition. We could associate 110 factors to 125 species and observed that fecal chromogranin A (CgA), a protein secreted by enteroendocrine cells, was exclusively associated with 61 microbial species whose abundance collectively accounted for 53% of microbial composition. Low CgA concentrations were seen in individuals with a more diverse microbiome. These results are an important step toward a better understanding of environment-diet-microbe-host interactions.


On the growth and form of cortical convolutions Link logo

Tallinen, Tuomas;Chung, Jun Young;Rousseau, François;Girard, Nadine;Lefèvre, Julien;Mahadevan, L.

Nature Physics Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 588–593

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Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents Link logo PDF logo

Stephens, Philip A.; Mason, Lucy R.; Green, Rhys E.; Gregory, Richard D.; Sauer, John R.; Alison, Jamie; Aunins, Ainars; Brotons, Lluis; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Campedelli, Tommaso; Chodkiewicz, Tomasz; Chylarecki, Przemyslaw; Crowe, Olivia; Elts, Jaanus; Escandell, Virginia; Foppen, Ruud P. B.; Heldbjerg, Henning; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frédéric

Science Volume 352, Issue 6281, Pages 84–87

  • 247 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 15 uutista
  • 239 Mendeley-lukijaa

Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. Large-scale analyses have generally focused on the impacts of climate change on the geographic ranges of species and on phenology, the timing of ecological phenomena. We used long-term monitoring of the abundance of breeding birds across Europe and the United States to produce, for both regions, composite population indices for two groups of species: those for which climate suitability has been either improving or declining since 1980. The ratio of these composite indices, the climate impact indicator (CII), reflects the divergent fates of species favored or disadvantaged by climate change. The trend in CII is positive and similar in the two regions. On both continents, interspecific and spatial variation in population abundance trends are well predicted by climate suitability trends.


The effect of host genetics on the gut microbiome

Bonder, Marc Jan; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Mujagic, Zlatan; Imhann, Floris; Vila, Arnau Vich; Deelen, Patrick; Vatanen, Tommi; Schirmer, Melanie; Smeekens, Sanne P.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Jaeger, Martin; Oosting, Marije; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Masclee, Ad A M; Swertz, Morris A.; Li, Yang; Kumar, Vinod; Joosten, Leo

Nature Genetics Volume 48, Issue 11, Pages 1407–1412

  • 216 twiittiä
  • 5 uutista
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The gut microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including genetics. In this study, we assessed the influence of host genetics on microbial species, pathways and gene ontology categories, on the basis of metagenomic sequencing in 1,514 subjects. In a genome-wide analysis, we identified associations of 9 loci with microbial taxonomies and 33 loci with microbial pathways and gene ontology terms at P < 5 × 10(-8). Additionally, in a targeted analysis of regions involved in complex diseases, innate and adaptive immunity, or food preferences, 32 loci were identified at the suggestive level of P < 5 × 10(-6). Most of our reported associations are new, including genome-wide significance for the C-type lectin molecules CLEC4F-CD207 at 2p13.3 and CLEC4A-FAM90A1 at 12p13. We also identified association of a functional LCT SNP with the Bifidobacterium genus (P = 3.45 × 10(-8)) and provide evidence of a gene-diet interaction in the regulation of Bifidobacterium abundance. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding host-microbe interactions to gain better insight into human health.


A reference panel of 64,976 haplotypes for genotype imputation Link logo

McCarthy, Shane; Das, Sayantan; Kretzschmar, Warren; Delaneau, Olivier; Wood, Andrew R.; Teumer, Alexander; Kang, Hyun Min; Fuchsberger, Christian; Danecek, Petr; Sharp, Kevin; Luo, Yang; Sidorel, Carlo; Kwong, Alan; Timpson, Nicholas; Koskinen, Seppo; Vrieze, Scott; Scott, Laura J.; Zhang, He; Mahajan, Anubha; Veldink, Jan

Nature Genetics

  • 192 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 10 uutista
  • 157 Mendeley-lukijaa

We describe a reference panel of 64,976 human haplotypes at 39,235,157 SNPs constructed using whole-genome sequence data from 20 studies of predominantly European ancestry. Using this resource leads to accurate genotype imputation at minor allele frequencies as low as 0.1% and a large increase in the number of SNPs tested in association studies, and it can help to discover and refine causal loci. We describe remote server resources that allow researchers to carry out imputation and phasing consistently and efficiently.


Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior Link logo

Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Illa M.; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R. B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin

Nature Genetics

  • 187 twiittiä
  • 5 bloggausta
  • 71 uutista
  • 134 Mendeley-lukijaa

The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.


Measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates and constraints on its couplings from a combined ATLAS and CMS analysis of the LHC pp collision data at root s=7 and 8 TeV Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Aad, G.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; ,

Journal of High Energy Physics Volume 2016, Issue 8

  • 184 twiittiä
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  • 77 Mendeley-lukijaa


Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320-570 years

Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D.; Winslow, Luke A.; Korhonen, Johanna; Aono, Yasuyuki

Scientific Reports

  • 177 twiittiä
  • 8 bloggausta
  • 15 uutista
  • 2 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 38 Mendeley-lukijaa

Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443-2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693-2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.


Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations PDF logo

Tybur JM, Inbar Y, Aaroe L, Barclay P, Barlow FK, de Barra M, Becker DV, Borovoi L, Choi I, Choi JA, Consedine NS, Conway A, Conway JR, Conway P, Adoric VC, Demirci DE, Fernandez AM, Ferreira DCS, Ishii K, Jaksic I, Ji TT, van Leeuwen F, Lewis DMG, Li NP, McIntyre JC, Mukherjee S, Park JH, Pawlowski B, Petersen MB, Pizarro D, Prodromitis G, Prokop P, Rantala MJ, Reynolds LM, Sandin B, Sevi B, De Smet D, Srinivasan N, Tewari S, Wilson C, Yong JC, Zezelj I

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 44, Pages 201607398–12413

  • 169 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 4 uutista
  • 42 Mendeley-lukijaa

People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations.


Kuollut: Ilkka Hanski

Arvola, Lauri Matti Juhani; Sundell, Janne Juhani

Nature Volume 534, Issue 7606, Pages 180–180

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  • 15 Mendeley-lukijaa


Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity

Darby, Stephen E.; Hackney, Christopher R.; Leyland, Julian; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel R.; Best, James L.; Nicholas, Andrew P.; Aalto, Rolf

Nature

  • 165 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 15 uutista
  • 35 Mendeley-lukijaa

The world's rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, with a considerable fraction being sequestered in large deltas, home to over 500 million people. Most (more than 70 per cent) large deltas are under threat from a combination of rising sea levels, ground surface subsidence and anthropogenic sediment trapping, and a sustainable supply of fluvial sediment is therefore critical to prevent deltas being 'drowned' by rising relative sea levels. Here we combine suspended sediment load data from the Mekong River with hydrological model simulations to isolate the role of tropical cyclones in transmitting suspended sediment to one of the world's great deltas. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the Mekong's suspended sediment load are correlated (r = 0.765, P < 0.1) with observed variations in tropical-cyclone climatology, and that a substantial portion (32 per cent) of the suspended sediment load reaching the delta is delivered by runoff generated by rainfall associated with tropical cyclones. Furthermore, we estimate that the suspended load to the delta has declined by 52.6 ± 10.2 megatonnes over recent years (1981-2005), of which 33.0 ± 7.1 megatonnes is due to a shift in tropical-cyclone climatology. Consequently, tropical cyclones have a key role in controlling the magnitude of, and variability in, transmission of suspended sediment to the coast. It is likely that anthropogenic sediment trapping in upstream reservoirs is a dominant factor in explaining past, and anticipating future, declines in suspended sediment loads reaching the world's major deltas. However, our study shows that changes in tropical-cyclone climatology affect trends in fluvial suspended sediment loads and thus are also key to fully assessing the risk posed to vulnerable coastal systems.


An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Link logo PDF logo

Byng, James; Chase, Mark; Christenhusz, Maarten; Fay, Michael; Judd, Walter; Mabberley, David; Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevens, Peter; ,

Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 181, Issue 1, Pages n/a–n/a

  • 165 twiittiä
  • 1 uutinen
  • 65 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 2089 Mendeley-lukijaa


Pleomorphic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi induce distinct immune responses Link logo

Meriläinen, Leena;Brander, Heini;Herranen, Anni;Schwarzbach, Armin;Gilbert, Leona

Microbes & Infection Volume 18, Issue 7-8, Pages 484–495

  • 156 twiittiä
  • 9 Mendeley-lukijaa

Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of tick-borne Lyme disease. As a response to environmental stress B. burgdorferi can change its morphology to a round body form. The role of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis has long been debated and unclear. Here, we demonstrated that round bodies were processed differently in differentiated macrophages, consequently inducing distinct immune responses compared to spirochetes in vitro. Colocalization analysis indicated that the F-actin participates in internalization of both forms. However, round bodies end up less in macrophage lysosomes than spirochetes suggesting that there are differences in processing of these forms in phagocytic cells. Furthermore, round bodies stimulated distinct cytokine and chemokine production in these cells. We confirmed that spirochetes and round bodies present different protein profiles and antigenicity. In a Western blot analysis Lyme disease patients had more intense responses to round bodies when compared to spirochetes. These results suggest that round bodies have a role in Lyme disease pathogenesis.


The influence of a short-term gluten-free diet on the human gut microbiome Open access logo PDF logo

Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Cai, Xianghang; Trynka, Gosia; Cenit, Maria C.; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Zhong, Huanzi; Vatanen, Tommi; Gevers, Dirk; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wang, Yang; Zhernakova, Alexandra

Genome Medicine Volume 8, Issue 1

  • 150 twiittiä
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  • 113 Mendeley-lukijaa

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome, but it is largely unknown how a switch to a GFD affects the human gut microbiome. We studied changes in the gut microbiomes of 21 healthy volunteers who followed a GFD for four weeks. We collected nine stool samples from each participant: one at baseline, four during the GFD period, and four when they returned to their habitual diet (HD), making a total of 189 samples. We determined microbiome profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and then processed the samples for taxonomic and imputed functional composition. Additionally, in all 189 samples, six gut health-related biomarkers were measured. Inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota remained stable during this short-term GFD intervention. A number of taxon-specific differences were seen during the GFD: the most striking shift was seen for the family Veillonellaceae (class Clostridia), which was significantly reduced during the intervention (p = 2.81 × 10(-05)). Seven other taxa also showed significant changes; the majority of them are known to play a role in starch metabolism. We saw stronger differences in pathway activities: 21 predicted pathway activity scores showed significant association to the change in diet. We observed strong relations between the predicted activity of pathways and biomarker measurements. A GFD changes the gut microbiome composition and alters the activity of microbial pathways.


Light-level geolocators reveal migratory connectivity in European populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca Link logo PDF logo

J. Ouwehand, M. P. Ahola, A. N. M. A Ausems, E. S. Bridge, M. Burgess, S. Hahn, C. M. Hewson, R. H. G. Klaassen, T. Laaksonen, H. M. Lampe, W. Velmala, C. Both

Journal of Avian Biology Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 69–83

  • 148 twiittiä
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  • 72 Mendeley-lukijaa


Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective" Open access logo PDF logo

Richard D. Beger, Warwick Dunn, Michael A. Schmidt, Steven S. Gross, Jennifer A. Kirwan, Marta Cascante, Lorraine Brennan, David S. Wishart, Matej Oresic, Thomas Hankemeier, David I. Broadhurst, Andrew N. Lane, Karsten Suhre, Gabi Kastenmüller, Susan J. Sumner, Ines Thiele, Oliver Fiehn, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk

Metabolomics Volume 12, Issue 10

  • 141 twiittiä
  • 92 Mendeley-lukijaa

Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status. This metabolic state reflects what has been encoded by the genome, and modified by diet, environmental factors, and the gut microbiome. The metabolic profile provides a quantifiable readout of biochemical state from normal physiology to diverse pathophysiologies in a manner that is often not obvious from gene expression analyses. Today, clinicians capture only a very small part of the information contained in the metabolome, as they routinely measure only a narrow set of blood chemistry analytes to assess health and disease states. Examples include measuring glucose to monitor diabetes, measuring cholesterol and high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein ratio to assess cardiovascular health, BUN and creatinine for renal disorders, and measuring a panel of metabolites to diagnose potential inborn errors of metabolism in neonates. We anticipate that the narrow range of chemical analyses in current use by the medical community today will be replaced in the future by analyses that reveal a far more comprehensive metabolic signature. This signature is expected to describe global biochemical aberrations that reflect patterns of variance in states of wellness, more accurately describe specific diseases and their progression, and greatly aid in differential diagnosis. Such future metabolic signatures will: (1) provide predictive, prognostic, diagnostic, and surrogate markers of diverse disease states; (2) inform on underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases; (3) allow for sub-classification of diseases, and stratification of patients based on metabolic pathways impacted; (4) reveal biomarkers for drug response phenotypes, providing an effective means to predict variation in a subject's response to treatment (pharmacometabolomics); (5) define a metabotype for each specific genotype, offering a functional read-out for genetic variants: (6) provide a means to monitor response and recurrence of diseases, such as cancers: (7) describe the molecular landscape in human performance applications and extreme environments. Importantly, sophisticated metabolomic analytical platforms and informatics tools have recently been developed that make it possible to measure thousands of metabolites in blood, other body fluids, and tissues. Such tools also enable more robust analysis of response to treatment. New insights have been gained about mechanisms of diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and a range of pathologies. A series of ground breaking studies supported by National Institute of Health (NIH) through the Pharmacometabolomics Research Network and its partnership with the Pharmacogenomics Research Network illustrate how a patient's metabotype at baseline, prior to treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment, can inform about treatment outcomes and variations in responsiveness to drugs (e.g., statins, antidepressants, antihypertensives and antiplatelet therapies). These studies along with several others also exemplify how metabolomics data can complement and inform genetic data in defining ethnic, sex, and gender basis for variation in responses to treatment, which illustrates how pharmacometabolomics and pharmacogenomics are complementary and powerful tools for precision medicine. Our metabolomics community believes that inclusion of metabolomics data in precision medicine initiatives is timely and will provide an extremely valuable layer of data that compliments and informs other data obtained by these important initiatives. Our Metabolomics Society, through its "Precision Medicine and Pharmacometabolomics Task Group", with input from our metabolomics community at large, has developed this White Paper where we discuss the value and approaches for including metabolomics data in large precision medicine initiatives. This White Paper offers recommendations for the selection of state of-the-art metabolomics platforms and approaches that offer the widest biochemical coverage, considers critical sample collection and preservation, as well as standardization of measurements, among other important topics. We anticipate that our metabolomics community will have representation in large precision medicine initiatives to provide input with regard to sample acquisition/preservation, selection of optimal omics technologies, and key issues regarding data collection, interpretation, and dissemination. We strongly recommend the collection and biobanking of samples for precision medicine initiatives that will take into consideration needs for large-scale metabolic phenotyping studies.


Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited The impact of altitude and activity scheduling Open access logo

David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

Journal of Human Evolution

  • 134 twiittiä
  • 3 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 42 Mendeley-lukijaa

Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo.


The masculinity paradox: facial masculinity and beardedness interact to determine women's ratings of men's facial attractiveness PDF logo

Dixson BJW, Sulikowski D, Gouda-Vossos A, Rantala MJ, Brooks RC

Journal of Evolutionary Biology Volume 29, Issue 11, Pages 2311–2320

  • 128 twiittiä
  • 4 bloggausta
  • 67 uutista
  • 32 Mendeley-lukijaa

In many species, male secondary sexual traits have evolved via female choice as they confer indirect (i.e. genetic) benefits or direct benefits such as enhanced fertility or survival. In humans, the role of men's characteristically masculine androgen-dependent facial traits in determining men's attractiveness has presented an enduring paradox in studies of human mate preferences. Male-typical facial features such as a pronounced brow ridge, a more robust jawline may signal underlying health while beards may signal men's age and masculine social dominance. However, masculine faces are judged as more attractive for short-term relationships over less masculine faces, while beards are judged as more attractive than clean-shaven faces for long-term relationships. Why such divergent effects occur between preferences for two sexually dimorphic traits remains unresolved. In the present study, we used computer graphic manipulation to morph male faces varying in facial hair from clean-shaven, light stubble, heavy stubble and full beards to appear more (+25% and +50%) or less (-25% and -50%) masculine. Women (N=8520) were assigned to treatments wherein they rated these stimuli for physical attractiveness in general, for a short-term liaison or a long-term relationship. Results showed a significant interaction between beardedness and masculinity on attractiveness ratings. Masculinized and, to an even greater extent, feminized faces were less attractive than unmanipulated faces when all were clean-shaven, and stubble and beards dampened the polarising effects of extreme masculinity and femininity. Relationship context also had effects on ratings, with facial hair enhancing long-term, and not short-term, attractiveness. Effects of facial masculinisation appears to have been due to small differences in the relative attractiveness of each masculinity level under the three treatment conditions and not to any change in the order of their attractiveness. Our findings suggest that beardedness may be attractive when judging long-term relationships as a signal of intra-sexual formidability and the potential to provide direct benefits to females. More generally, our results hint at a divergence of signalling function, which may result in a subtle trade-off in women's preferences, for two highly sexually dimorphic androgen-dependent facial traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size Link logo

Evans, Alistair R.; Daly, E. Susanne; Catlett, Kierstin K.; Paul, Kathleen S.; King, Stephen J.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Nesse, Hans P.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Townsend, Grant C.; Schwartz, Gary T.; Jernvall, Jukka

Nature Volume 530, Issue 7591, Pages 477–480

  • 127 twiittiä
  • 6 bloggausta
  • 40 uutista
  • 92 Mendeley-lukijaa

The variation in molar tooth size in humans and our closest relatives (hominins) has strongly influenced our view of human evolution. The reduction in overall size and disproportionate decrease in third molar size have been noted for over a century, and have been attributed to reduced selection for large dentitions owing to changes in diet or the acquisition of cooking. The systematic pattern of size variation along the tooth row has been described as a 'morphogenetic gradient' in mammal, and more specifically hominin, teeth since Butler and Dahlberg. However, the underlying controls of tooth size have not been well understood, with hypotheses ranging from morphogenetic fields to the clone theory. In this study we address the following question: are there rules that govern how hominin tooth size evolves? Here we propose that the inhibitory cascade, an activator-inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth (deciduous premolars and permanent molars) in hominins. This configuration is also equivalent to a morphogenetic gradient, finally pointing to a mechanism that can generate this gradient. The pattern of tooth size remains constant with absolute size in australopiths (including Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus). However, in species of Homo, including modern humans, there is a tight link between tooth proportions and absolute size such that a single developmental parameter can explain both the relative and absolute sizes of primary postcanine teeth. On the basis of the relationship of inhibitory cascade patterning with size, we can use the size at one tooth position to predict the sizes of the remaining four primary postcanine teeth in the row for hominins. Our study provides a development-based expectation to examine the evolution of the unique proportions of human teeth.


Framing the concept of satellite remote sensing essential biodiversity variables : challenges and future directions PDF logo

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wegmann, Martin; Skidmore, Andrew; Mücher, Sander; Dawson, Terence P.; Fernandez, Miguel; Lucas, Richard; Schaepman, Michael E.; Wang, Tiejun; O'Connor, Brian; Jongman, Robert H.G.; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Leidner, A

Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages n/a–n/a

  • 120 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 3 uutista
  • 163 Mendeley-lukijaa


Wellness Routines with Wearable Activity Trackers: A Systematic Review Link logo PDF logo

Muhammad Usman Warraich

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Volume 12, Issue 1

  • 116 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 21 uutista
  • 374 Mendeley-lukijaa

Consumer-wearable activity trackers are electronic devices used for monitoring fitness- and other health-related metrics. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence for validity and reliability of popular consumer-wearable activity trackers (Fitbit and Jawbone) and their ability to estimate steps, distance, physical activity, energy expenditure, and sleep. Searches included only full-length English language studies published in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar through July 31, 2015. Two people reviewed and abstracted each included study. In total, 22 studies were included in the review (20 on adults, 2 on youth). For laboratory-based studies using step counting or accelerometer steps, the correlation with tracker-assessed steps was high for both Fitbit and Jawbone (Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficients (CC) > =0.80). Only one study assessed distance for the Fitbit, finding an over-estimate at slower speeds and under-estimate at faster speeds. Two field-based studies compared accelerometry-assessed physical activity to the trackers, with one study finding higher correlation (Spearman CC 0.86, Fitbit) while another study found a wide range in correlation (intraclass CC 0.36-0.70, Fitbit and Jawbone). Using several different comparison measures (indirect and direct calorimetry, accelerometry, self-report), energy expenditure was more often under-estimated by either tracker. Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were over-estimated and wake after sleep onset was under-estimated comparing metrics from polysomnography to either tracker using a normal mode setting. No studies of intradevice reliability were found. Interdevice reliability was reported on seven studies using the Fitbit, but none for the Jawbone. Walking- and running-based Fitbit trials indicated consistently high interdevice reliability for steps (Pearson and intraclass CC 0.76-1.00), distance (intraclass CC 0.90-0.99), and energy expenditure (Pearson and intraclass CC 0.71-0.97). When wearing two Fitbits while sleeping, consistency between the devices was high. This systematic review indicated higher validity of steps, few studies on distance and physical activity, and lower validity for energy expenditure and sleep. The evidence reviewed indicated high interdevice reliability for steps, distance, energy expenditure, and sleep for certain Fitbit models. As new activity trackers and features are introduced to the market, documentation of the measurement properties can guide their use in research settings.


Timing, rates and spectra of human germline mutation Link logo

Rahbari, Raheleh; Wuster, Arthur; Lindsay, Sarah J.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Al Turki, Saeed; Dominiczak, Anna; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David; Smith, Blair; Stratton, Michael R.; Hurles, Matthew E.; , ; Paunio, Tiina

Nature Genetics Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 126–133

  • 115 twiittiä
  • 221 Mendeley-lukijaa

Germline mutations are a driving force behind genome evolution and genetic disease. We investigated genome-wide mutation rates and spectra in multi-sibling families. The mutation rate increased with paternal age in all families, but the number of additional mutations per year differed by more than twofold between families. Meta-analysis of 6,570 mutations showed that germline methylation influences mutation rates. In contrast to somatic mutations, we found remarkable consistency in germline mutation spectra between the sexes and at different paternal ages. In parental germ line, 3.8% of mutations were mosaic, resulting in 1.3% of mutations being shared by siblings. The number of these shared mutations varied significantly between families. Our data suggest that the mutation rate per cell division is higher during both early embryogenesis and differentiation of primordial germ cells but is reduced substantially during post-pubertal spermatogenesis. These findings have important consequences for the recurrence risks of disorders caused by de novo mutations.


Beyond cool:adapting upland streams for climate change using riparian woodlands Link logo PDF logo

Thomas, Stephen M.; Griffiths, Sian W.; Ormerod, Steve J.

Global Change Biology Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 310–324

  • 115 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 1 uutinen
  • 47 Mendeley-lukijaa

Managed adaptation could reduce the risks of climate change to the world's ecosystems, but there have been surprisingly few practical evaluations of the options available. For example, riparian woodland is advocated widely as shade to reduce warming in temperate streams, but few studies have considered collateral effects on species composition or ecosystem functions. Here, we use cross sectional analyses at two scales (region and within streams) to investigate whether four types of riparian management, including those proposed to reduce potential climate change impacts, might also affect the composition, functional character, dynamics and energetic resourcing of macroinvertebrates in upland Welsh streams (UK). Riparian land use across the region had only small effects on invertebrate taxonomic composition, while stable isotope data showed how energetic resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates in all functional guilds were split roughly 50:50 between terrestrial and aquatic origins irrespective of riparian management. Nevertheless, streams draining the most extensive deciduous woodland had the greatest stocks of coarse particulate matter (CPOM) and greater numbers of "shredding" detritivores. Stream-scale investigations showed that macroinvertebrate biomass in deciduous woodland streams was around twice that in moorland streams, and lowest of all in streams draining non-native conifers. The unexpected absence of contrasting terrestrial signals in the isotopic data implies that factors other than local land use affect the relative incorporation of allochthonous subsidies into riverine food webs. Nevertheless, our results reveal how planting deciduous riparian trees along temperate headwaters as an adaptation to climate change can modify macroinvertebrate function, increase biomass and potentially enhance resilience by increasing basal resources where cover is extensive (>60m riparian width). We advocate greater urgency in efforts to understand the ecosystem consequences of climate change adaptation in order to guide future actions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss Link logo PDF logo

Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 99–102

  • 115 twiittiä
  • 4 bloggausta
  • 13 uutista
  • 190 Mendeley-lukijaa

International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species.


Network Structure, Metadata, and the Prediction of Missing Nodes and Annotations Open access logo PDF logo

Hric, Darko; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Fortunato, Santo

arXiv Volume 6, Issue 3

  • 114 twiittiä
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  • 66 Mendeley-lukijaa


Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements Link logo PDF logo

Dunne, Eimear M.; Gordon, Hamish; Kuerten, Andreas; Almeida, Joao; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Ortega, Ismael K.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Adamov, Alexey; Baltensperger, Urs; Barmet, Peter; Benduhn, Francois; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Clarke, Antony; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C.

Science Volume 354, Issue 6316, Pages 1119–1124

  • 112 twiittiä
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  • 25 uutista
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Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. Here we build a global model of aerosol formation using extensive laboratory-measured nucleation rates involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions and organic compounds. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A significant fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not significantly affect climate via nucleation in the present-day atmosphere.


Land use: A global baseline for ecosystem recovery Link logo

Kotiaho, Janne Sakari;Brink, Ben ten;Harris, Jim

Nature Volume 532, Issue 7597, Pages 37–37

  • 109 twiittiä
  • 20 Mendeley-lukijaa


Identification of Common Genetic Variants Influencing Spontaneous Dizygotic Twinning and Female Fertility Link logo PDF logo

Mbarek, Hamdi; Steinberg, Stacy; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott D.; Miller, Michael B.; McRae, Allan F.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Day, Felix R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Davies, Gareth E.; Martin, Hilary C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Jansen, Rick; McAloney, Kerrie; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Plomin, Robert; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.

American Journal of Human Genetics Volume 98, Issue 5, Pages 898–908

  • 106 twiittiä
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  • 115 uutista
  • 47 Mendeley-lukijaa

Spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twinning occurs in 1%-4% of women, with familial clustering and unknown physiological pathways and genetic origin. DZ twinning might index increased fertility and has distinct health implications for mother and child. We performed a GWAS in 1,980 mothers of spontaneous DZ twins and 12,953 control subjects. Findings were replicated in a large Icelandic cohort and tested for association across a broad range of fertility traits in women. Two SNPs were identified (rs11031006 near FSHB, p = 1.54 × 10(-9), and rs17293443 in SMAD3, p = 1.57 × 10(-8)) and replicated (p = 3 × 10(-3) and p = 1.44 × 10(-4), respectively). Based on ∼90,000 births in Iceland, the risk of a mother delivering twins increased by 18% for each copy of allele rs11031006-G and 9% for rs17293443-C. A higher polygenic risk score (PRS) for DZ twinning, calculated based on the results of the DZ twinning GWAS, was significantly associated with DZ twinning in Iceland (p = 0.001). A higher PRS was also associated with having children (p = 0.01), greater lifetime parity (p = 0.03), and earlier age at first child (p = 0.02). Allele rs11031006-G was associated with higher serum FSH levels, earlier age at menarche, earlier age at first child, higher lifetime parity, lower PCOS risk, and earlier age at menopause. Conversely, rs17293443-C was associated with later age at last child. We identified robust genetic risk variants for DZ twinning: one near FSHB and a second within SMAD3, the product of which plays an important role in gonadal responsiveness to FSH. These loci contribute to crucial aspects of reproductive capacity and health.


Enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange caused by amplified plant productivity in northern ecosystems Link logo PDF logo

Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Keeling, Ralph; Heimann, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus

Science

  • 105 twiittiä
  • 2 uutista
  • 164 Mendeley-lukijaa

Atmospheric monitoring of high northern latitudes (> 40°N) has shown an enhanced seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide (CO2) since the 1960s but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The much stronger increase in high latitudes compared to low ones suggests that northern ecosystems are experiencing large changes in vegetation and carbon cycle dynamics. Here we show that the latitudinal gradient of the increasing CO2 amplitude is mainly driven by positive trends in photosynthetic carbon uptake caused by recent climate change and mediated by changing vegetation cover in northern ecosystems. Our results emphasize the importance of climate-vegetation-carbon cycle feedbacks at high latitudes, and indicate that during the last decades photosynthetic carbon uptake has reacted much more strongly to warming than carbon release processes.


Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Baisero, Daniele; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Joppa, Lucas; Alkemade, Rob; Di Marco, Moreno; Santini, Luca; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi; Pressey, Robert L.; Arponen, Anni; Boitani, Luigi; Reside, April E.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Rondinini, Carlo

Conservation Letters Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 5–13

  • 101 twiittiä
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  • 213 Mendeley-lukijaa


Sex differences in social focus across the life cycle in humans Open access logo PDF logo

Bhattacharya, Kunal; Ghosh, Asim; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

Royal Society Open Science Volume 3, Issue 4

  • 99 twiittiä
  • 6 bloggausta
  • 84 uutista
  • 6 Mendeley-lukijaa

Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.


On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive Open access logo Link logo

Grahn, Patrick; Annila, Arto; Kolehmainen, Erkki

AIP Advances Volume 6, Issue 6

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  • 16 uutista
  • 1 viittaus Wikipediassa
  • 34 Mendeley-lukijaa


Global spread of hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems during the last three centuries is caused by rising local human pressure Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Francus, Pierre; Normandeau, Alexandre; Lapointe, François; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Ojala, Antti; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Zolitschka, Bernd;

Global Change Biology Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1481–1489

  • 97 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 7 uutista
  • 57 Mendeley-lukijaa

The spread of hypoxia is a threat to aquatic ecosystem functions and services as well as to biodiversity. However, sparse long-term monitoring of lake ecosystems has prevented reconstruction of global hypoxia dynamics while inhibiting investigations into its causes and assessing the resilience capacity of these systems. This study compiles the onset and duration of hypoxia recorded in sediments of 365 lakes worldwide since AD 1700, showing that lacustrine hypoxia started spreading before AD 1900, 70 years prior to hypoxia in coastal zones. This study also shows that the increase of human activities and nutrient release is leading to hypoxia onset. No correlations were found with changes in precipitation or temperature. There is no evidence for a post-1980s return to well-oxygenated lacustrine conditions in industrialized countries despite the implementation of restoration programs. The apparent establishment of stable hypoxic conditions prior to AD 1900 highlights the challenges of a growing nutrient demand, accompanied by increasing global nutrient emissions of our industrialized societies, and climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Detection of timescales in evolving complex systems Open access logo

Darst, Richard; Granell, Clara; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Saramäki, Jari; Fortunato, Santo

Scientific Reports

  • 96 twiittiä
  • 67 Mendeley-lukijaa

Most complex systems are intrinsically dynamic in nature. The evolution of a dynamic complex system is typically represented as a sequence of snapshots, where each snapshot describes the configuration of the system at a particular instant of time. This is often done by using constant intervals but a better approach would be to define dynamic intervals that match the evolution of the system's configuration. To this end, we propose a method that aims at detecting evolutionary changes in the configuration of a complex system, and generates intervals accordingly. We show that evolutionary timescales can be identified by looking for peaks in the similarity between the sets of events on consecutive time intervals of data. Tests on simple toy models reveal that the technique is able to detect evolutionary timescales of time-varying data both when the evolution is smooth as well as when it changes sharply. This is further corroborated by analyses of several real datasets. Our method is scalable to extremely large datasets and is computationally efficient. This allows a quick, parameter-free detection of multiple timescales in the evolution of a complex system.


Quantification of diurnal birch (Betula pendula) branch displacement with short interval terrestrial laser scanning Link logo PDF logo

Puttonen, Eetu; Briese, C.; Mandlburger, G.; Wieser, M.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Pfeifer, N.

Frontiers in Plant Science

  • 94 twiittiä
  • 12 bloggausta
  • 67 uutista
  • 35 Mendeley-lukijaa

The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula) branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland) and 77 (Austria) individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria) or around (Finland) sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology.


Combining internal and external motivations in multi-actor governance arrangements for biodiversity and ecosystem services PDF logo

Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Admiraal, Jeroen; Beringer, Almut; Bonaiuto, Flavia; Cicero, Lavinia; Fernandez-Wulff, Paula; Hagens, Janneke; Hiedanpää, Juha; Knights, Paul; Molinario, Erica; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo; Popa, Florin; Silc, Urban; Soethe, Nathalie; Soinin

Environmental Science & Policy

  • 93 twiittiä
  • 57 Mendeley-lukijaa


Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension Link logo

Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin; Warren, Helen; Cook, James P.; Manning, Alisa K.; Grarup, Niels; Sim, Xueling; Barnes, Daniel R.; Witkowska, Kate; Staley, James R.; Tragante, Vinicius; Tukiainen, Taru; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Masca, Nicholas; Freitag, Daniel F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Giannakopoulou, Olga; Tinker, Andrew; Harakalova, Magdalena

Nature Genetics

  • 93 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 23 uutista
  • 45 Mendeley-lukijaa

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to 192,763 individuals and used ∼155,063 samples for independent replication. We identified 30 new blood pressure- or hypertension-associated genetic regions in the general population, including 3 rare missense variants in RBM47, COL21A1 and RRAS with larger effects (>1.5 mm Hg/allele) than common variants. Multiple rare nonsense and missense variant associations were found in A2ML1, and a low-frequency nonsense variant in ENPEP was identified. Our data extend the spectrum of allelic variation underlying blood pressure traits and hypertension, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of hypertension and indicate new targets for clinical intervention.


An ecological function in crisis? The temporal overlap between plant flowering and pollinator function shrinks as the Arctic warms Link logo PDF logo

Schmidt, Niels; Mosbacher, Jesper; Nielsen, Palle; Rasmussen, Claus; Hoye, Toke; Roslin, Tomas Valter

Ecography

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  • 23 Mendeley-lukijaa


Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria PDF logo

Verseux C, Baque M, Lehto K, de Vera JPP, Rothschild LJ, Billi D

International Journal of Astrobiology Volume 15, Issue 01, Pages 65–92

  • 90 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 5 uutista
  • 5 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 59 Mendeley-lukijaa


Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change Open access logo Link logo

Di Minin, Enrico; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina; Verburg, Peter; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Petracca, Lisa; Moilanen, Atte Jaakko

Scientific Reports

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  • 2 bloggausta
  • 4 uutista
  • 189 Mendeley-lukijaa

Mammalian carnivores have suffered the biggest range contraction among all biodiversity and are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Therefore, we identified priority areas for the conservation of mammalian carnivores, while accounting for species-specific requirements for connectivity and expected agricultural and urban expansion. While prioritizing for carnivores only, we were also able to test their effectiveness as surrogates for 23,110 species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and 867 terrestrial ecoregions. We then assessed the risks to carnivore conservation within each country that makes a contribution to global carnivore conservation. We found that land use change will potentially lead to important range losses, particularly amongst already threatened carnivore species. In addition, the 17% of land targeted for protection under the Aichi Target 11 was found to be inadequate to conserve carnivores under expected land use change. Our results also highlight that land use change will decrease the effectiveness of carnivores to protect other threatened species, especially threatened amphibians. In addition, the risk of human-carnivore conflict is potentially high in countries where we identified spatial priorities for their conservation. As meeting the global biodiversity target will be inadequate for carnivore protection, innovative interventions are needed to conserve carnivores outside protected areas to compliment any proposed expansion of the protected area network.


Last millenium northern hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part I: The long term context

Wilson, Rob; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Edward; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Davi, Nicole; Esper, Jan; Frank, Dave; Gunnarson, Björn; Hegerl, Gabi; Helama, Samuli; Klesse, Stefan; Krusic, Paul J.; Linderholm, Hans W.; Myglan, Vladimir

Quaternary Science Reviews

  • 87 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 1 uutinen
  • 72 Mendeley-lukijaa


Whole-genome sequencing for routine pathogen surveillance in public health A population snapshot of invasive Staphylococcus aureus in Europe PDF logo

Aanensen, David M.; Feil, Edward J.; Holden, Matthew T G; Dordel, Janina; Yeats, Corin A.; Fedosejev, Artemij; Goater, Richard; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Corander, Jukka; Colijn, Caroline; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Schouls, Leo; Heck, Max; Pluister, Gerlinde; Ruimy, Raymond; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Åhman, Jenny; Matuschek, Erika; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Parkhill, Julian

mBio Volume 7, Issue 3

  • 85 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 5 uutista
  • 56 Mendeley-lukijaa

The implementation of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) promises to transform our ability to monitor the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. Here we combined WGS data from 308 invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates corresponding to a pan-European population snapshot, with epidemiological and resistance data. Geospatial visualization of the data is made possible by a generic software tool designed for public health purposes that is available at the project URL (http://www.microreact.org/project/EkUvg9uY?tt=rc). Our analysis demonstrates that high-risk clones can be identified on the basis of population level properties such as clonal relatedness, abundance, and spatial structuring and by inferring virulence and resistance properties on the basis of gene content. We also show that in silico predictions of antibiotic resistance profiles are at least as reliable as phenotypic testing. We argue that this work provides a comprehensive road map illustrating the three vital components for future molecular epidemiological surveillance: (i) large-scale structured surveys, (ii) WGS, and (iii) community-oriented database infrastructure and analysis tools. The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a public health emergency of global concern, threatening medical intervention at every level of health care delivery. Several recent studies have demonstrated the promise of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial pathogens for epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection, and infection control. However, as this technology becomes more widely adopted, the key challenges of generating representative national and international data sets and the development of bioinformatic tools to manage and interpret the data become increasingly pertinent. This study provides a road map for the integration of WGS data into routine pathogen surveillance. We emphasize the importance of large-scale routine surveys to provide the population context for more targeted or localized investigation and the development of open-access bioinformatic tools to provide the means to combine and compare independently generated data with publicly available data sets.


Physics : quantum problems solved through games

Sabrina Maniscalco

Nature Volume 532, Issue 7598, Pages 184–185

  • 85 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 8 uutista
  • 23 Mendeley-lukijaa


Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914 Open access logo PDF logo

Abbott B. P., Abbott R., Abbott T. D., Abernathy M. R., Acernese F., Ackley K., Adams C., Adams T., Addesso P., Adhikari R. X., Adya V. B., Affeldt C., Agathos M., Agatsuma K., Aggarwal N., Aguiar O. D., Aiello L., Ain A., Ajith P., Allen B., Allocca A., Altin P. A., Anderson S. B., Anderson W. G., Arai K., Araya M. C., Arceneaux C. C., Areeda J. S., Arnaud N., Arun K. G., Ascenzi S., Ashton G., Ast M., Aston S. M., Astone P., Aufmuth P., Aulbert C., Babak S., Bacon P., Bader M. K. M., Baker P. T., Baldaccini F., Ballardin G., Ballmer S. W., Barayoga J. C., Barclay S. E., Barish B. C., Barker D., Barone F., Barr B., Barsotti L., Barsuglia M., Barta D., Barthelmy S., Bartlett J., Bartos I., Bassiri R., Basti A., Batch J. C., Baune C., Bavigadda V., Bazzan M., Behnke B., Bejger M., Bell A. S

The Astrophysical Journal Letters Volume 826, Issue 1

  • 84 twiittiä
  • 6 bloggausta
  • 5 uutista
  • 62 Mendeley-lukijaa


Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles Link logo

Kirkby, Jasper; Duplissy, Jonathan; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, Joao; Troestl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia

Nature Volume 533, Issue 7604, Pages 521–526

  • 84 twiittiä
  • 7 bloggausta
  • 53 uutista
  • 145 Mendeley-lukijaa

Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution.


Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire:an expert assessment Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Abbott, Benjamin W.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Bowden, William B.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Epstein, Howard E.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Harms, Tamara K.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, Michelle C.; McGuire, A. David; Natali, Susan M.; Rocha, Adrian V.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Vonk, Jorien E.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.; Alexander, Heather D.

Environmental Research Letters (ERL) Volume 11, Issue 3

  • 84 twiittiä
  • 4 bloggausta
  • 20 uutista
  • 97 Mendeley-lukijaa


World checklist of hornworts and liverworts. Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Söderström, Lars; Hagborg, Anders; von Konrat, Matt; Bartholomew-Began , Sharon; Bell, David; Briscoe, Laura; Brown, Elizabeth; Cargill, D. Christine; Costa, Denise P.; Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J.; Cooper, Endymion D.; Dauphin, Gregorio; Engel, John J.; Feldberg, Kathrin; Glenny, David; Gradstein, S. Robbert; He, Xiaolan; Heinrichs, Jochen; Hentschel, Jorn; Ilkiu-Borges, Anna Luiza

PhytoKeys Volume 59, Issue 59

  • 79 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 3 uutista
  • 26 viittausta Wikipediassa
  • 48 Mendeley-lukijaa

A working checklist of accepted taxa worldwide is vital in achieving the goal of developing an online flora of all known plants by 2020 as part of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. We here present the first-ever worldwide checklist for liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) that includes 7486 species in 398 genera representing 92 families from the two phyla. The checklist has far reaching implications and applications, including providing a valuable tool for taxonomists and systematists, analyzing phytogeographic and diversity patterns, aiding in the assessment of floristic and taxonomic knowledge, and identifying geographical gaps in our understanding of the global liverwort and hornwort flora. The checklist is derived from a working data set centralizing nomenclature, taxonomy and geography on a global scale. Prior to this effort a lack of centralization has been a major impediment for the study and analysis of species richness, conservation and systematic research at both regional and global scales. The success of this checklist, initiated in 2008, has been underpinned by its community approach involving taxonomic specialists working towards a consensus on taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution.


Infectious Disease Dynamics in Heterogeneous Landscapes Link logo

Parratt, Steven Robert; Numminen, Suvi Elina; Laine, Anna-Liisa

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution & Systematics Volume 47, Issue 1

  • 79 twiittiä
  • 40 Mendeley-lukijaa


Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation Link logo PDF logo

Steinbauer, M.; Field, R.; Grytnes, J.-A.; Trigas, P.; Ah-Peng, C.; Attorre, F.; Birks, J.; Borges, P.A.V.; Cardoso, Pedro; Chou, C.-H.; De Sanctis, M.; Duarte, M.; Elias, R.; Fernandez-Palacios, J.-M.; Gabriel, R.; Gereau, R.; Gillespie, R.; Greimler, J.; Harter, D.; Huang, T.-J.

Global Ecology & Biogeography Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1097–1107

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Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C PDF logo

Svetlana Jevrejeva; Luke P. Jackson; Riccardo E. M. Riva; Aslak Grinsted; John C. Moore

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 47

  • 76 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 28 uutista
  • 59 Mendeley-lukijaa

Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age.


Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers Link logo

Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkanen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Virta, Marko P. Juhani; Alm, Eric J

ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 427–436

  • 75 twiittiä
  • 1 uutinen
  • 188 Mendeley-lukijaa

Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 22 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.124.


Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly Link logo PDF logo

Fountain, Toby Edward Soames; Nieminen, Marko Juhani; Siren, Jukka Pekka; Wong, Swee Chong; Lehtonen, Rainer Juhani; Hanski, Ilkka Aulis

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 10, Pages 2678–2683

  • 72 twiittiä
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  • 2 uutista
  • 79 Mendeley-lukijaa

Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction.


Breaking the Cradle of Humankind

Cabeza, Mar;Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro;Burgas Riera, Daniel;Fraixedas, Sara;López-Baucells, Adià

Nature Volume 523, Issue 7558, Pages 33–33

  • 70 twiittiä
  • 1 uutinen
  • 8 Mendeley-lukijaa


The evolutionary ecology of deception Link logo PDF logo

Mökkönen, Mikael;Lindstedt, Carita

Biological Reviews Volume 91, Issue 4, Pages 1020–1035

  • 69 twiittiä
  • 80 Mendeley-lukijaa

Through dishonest signals or actions, individuals often misinform others to their own benefit. We review recent literature to explore the evolutionary and ecological conditions for deception to be more likely to evolve and be maintained. We identify four conditions: (1) high misinformation potential through perceptual constraints of perceiver; (2) costs and benefits of responding to deception; (3) asymmetric power relationships between individuals and (4) exploitation of common goods. We discuss behavioural and physiological mechanisms that form a deception continuum from secrecy to overt signals. Deceptive tactics usually succeed by being rare and are often evolving under co-evolutionary arms races, sometimes leading to the evolution of polymorphism. The degree of deception can also vary depending on the environmental conditions. Finally, we suggest a conceptual framework for studying deception and highlight important questions for future studies.


Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans Open access logo Link logo

Elisabeth Bolund, Virpi Lummaa, Ken R. Smith, Heidi A. Hanson, Alexei A. Maklakov

Scientific Reports

  • 69 twiittiä
  • 39 uutista
  • 16 Mendeley-lukijaa

The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution.


Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality PDF logo

van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Da

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 13, Pages 201517903–3562

  • 68 twiittiä
  • 12 uutista
  • 167 Mendeley-lukijaa

Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.


Search for Resonant Production of High-Mass Photon Pairs in Proton-Proton Collisions at root s=8 and 13 TeV Link logo PDF logo

Khachatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; ,

Physical Review Letters Volume 117, Issue 5

  • 68 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 5 uutista
  • 1 viittaus Wikipediassa
  • 29 Mendeley-lukijaa

A search for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs is presented. The analysis is based on samples of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3  fb^{-1}, respectively. The interpretation of the search results focuses on spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4 TeV and with widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4×10^{-4} and 5.6×10^{-2}. Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. A modest excess of events compatible with a narrow resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV is observed. The local significance of the excess is approximately 3.4 standard deviations. The significance is reduced to 1.6 standard deviations once the effect of searching under multiple signal hypotheses is considered. More data are required to determine the origin of this excess.


MultiSite Gateway-Compatible Cell Type-Specific Gene-Inducible System for Plants Link logo PDF logo

Siligato, Riccardo; Wang, Xin; Yadav, Shri Ram; Lehesranta, Satu; Ma, Guojie; Ursache, Robertas; Sevilem, Iris; Zhang, Jing; Gorte, Maartje; Prasad, Kalika; Wrzaczek, Michael; Heidstra, Renze; Murphy, Angus; Scheres, Ben; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

Plant Physiology Volume 170, Issue 2, Pages 627–641

  • 68 twiittiä
  • 51 Mendeley-lukijaa

A powerful method to study gene function is expression or overexpression in an inducible, cell type-specific system followed by observation of consequent phenotypic changes and visualization of linked reporters in the target tissue. Multiple inducible gene overexpression systems have been developed for plants, but very few of these combine plant selection markers, control of expression domains, access to multiple promoters and protein fusion reporters, chemical induction, and high-throughput cloning capabilities. Here, we introduce a MultiSite Gateway® compatible inducible system for plants that provides the capability to generate such constructs in a single cloning step. The system is based on the tightly controlled, estrogen-inducible XVE system. We demonstrate that the transformants generated with this system exhibit expected cell-type specific expression, similar to what is observed with constitutively-expressed native promoters. With this new system, cloning of inducible constructs is no longer limited to a few special cases, but can be used as standard approach when gene function is studied. In addition, we present a set of entry clones consisting of histochemical and fluorescent reporter variants designed for gene and promoter expression studies.


Converting Scholarly Journals to Open Access: A Review of Approaches and Experiences Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Solomon, D;Laakso, M;Björk, B;Suber, P

Learned Publishing Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 259–269

  • 66 twiittiä
  • 12 Mendeley-lukijaa


Tying quantum knots

Hall, D. S.; Ray, M. W.; Tiurev, K.; Ruokokoski, E.; Gheorghe, A. H.; Möttönen, Mikko

Nature Physics Volume 12, Issue 5, Pages 478–483

  • 66 twiittiä
  • 6 bloggausta
  • 43 uutista
  • 52 Mendeley-lukijaa


Computational pan-genomics:status, promises and challenges Link logo PDF logo

Marschall, Tobias; , ; Mäkinen, Veli Antti Tapani; Valenzuela, Serra Daniel Alejandro

Briefings in Bioinformatics

  • 66 twiittiä
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  • 65 Mendeley-lukijaa

Many disciplines, from human genetics and oncology to plant breeding, microbiology and virology, commonly face the challenge of analyzing rapidly increasing numbers of genomes. In case of Homo sapiens, the number of sequenced genomes will approach hundreds of thousands in the next few years. Simply scaling up established bioinformatics pipelines will not be sufficient for leveraging the full potential of such rich genomic data sets. Instead, novel, qualitatively different computational methods and paradigms are needed. We will witness the rapid extension of computational pan-genomics, a new sub-area of research in computational biology. In this article, we generalize existing definitions and understand a pan-genome as any collection of genomic sequences to be analyzed jointly or to be used as a reference. We examine already available approaches to construct and use pan-genomes, discuss the potential benefits of future technologies and methodologies and review open challenges from the vantage point of the above-mentioned biological disciplines. As a prominent example for a computational paradigm shift, we particularly highlight the transition from the representation of reference genomes as strings to representations as graphs. We outline how this and other challenges from different application domains translate into common computational problems, point out relevant bioinformatics techniques and identify open problems in computer science. With this review, we aim to increase awareness that a joint approach to computational pan-genomics can help address many of the problems currently faced in various domains.


Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests Open access logo Link logo

van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix

Nature Communications

  • 64 twiittiä
  • 9 uutista
  • 142 Mendeley-lukijaa

There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.


Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants Open access logo Link logo

Boratynski, Zbigniew;Arias, Javi Miranda;Garcia, Cristina;Mappes, Tapio;Mousseau, Timothy A.;Møller, Anders P.;Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz;Piwczyński, Marcin;Tukalenko, Eugene

Scientific Reports

  • 61 twiittiä
  • 7 Mendeley-lukijaa

Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.


Microbes as engines of ecosystem function: When does community structure enhance predictions of ecosystem processes? Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Graham, Emily B.; Knelman, Joseph E.; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Siciliano, Steven; Breulmann, Marc; Yannarell, Anthony; Beman, J. M.; Abell, Guy; Philippot, Laurent; Prosser, James; Foulquier, Arnauld; Yuste, Jorge C.; Glanville, Helen C.; Jones, Davey L.;

Frontiers in Microbiology

  • 60 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 3 uutista
  • 228 Mendeley-lukijaa

Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth's biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: 'When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?' We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.


Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia Open access logo PDF logo

Bruce C. Forbes; Timo Kumpula; Nina Messhtyb; Roza Laptander; Marc Macias-Fauria; Pentti Zetterberg; Mariana Verdonen; Anna Skarin; Kwang-Yul Kim; L. N. Boisvert; J. C. Stroeve; Annett Bartsch

Biology Letters Volume 12, Issue 11

  • 60 twiittiä
  • 4 bloggausta
  • 104 uutista
  • 14 Mendeley-lukijaa

Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense. Here, we review evidence for autumn atmospheric warming and precipitation increases over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to BKS ice loss. Two major ROS events during November 2006 and 2013 led to massive winter reindeer mortality episodes on the Yamal Peninsula. Fieldwork with migratory herders has revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from the catastrophic 2013 event will unfold for years to come. The suggested link between sea ice loss, more frequent and intense ROS events and high reindeer mortality has serious implications for the future of tundra Nenets nomadism.


The Role of Facial and Body Hair Distribution in Women's Judgments of Men's Sexual Attractiveness PDF logo

Dixson BJW, Rantala MJ

Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 877–889

  • 60 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 4 uutista
  • 22 Mendeley-lukijaa

Facial and body hair are some of the most visually conspicuous and sexually dimorphic of all men's secondary sexual traits. Both are androgen dependent, requiring the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via the enzyme 5α reductase 2 for their expression. While previous studies on the attractiveness of facial and body hair are equivocal, none have accounted as to how natural variation in their distribution may influence male sexual attractiveness. In the present study, we quantified men's facial and body hair distribution as either very light, light, medium, or heavy using natural photographs. We also tested whether women's fertility influenced their preferences for beards and body hair by comparing preferences among heterosexual women grouped according their fertility (high fertility, low fertility, and contraceptive use). Results showed that men with more evenly and continuously distributed facial hair from the lower jaw connecting to the mustache and covering the cheeks were judged as more sexually attractive than individuals with more patchy facial hair. Men with body hair were less attractive than when clean shaven, with the exception of images depicting some hair around the areolae, pectoral region, and the sternum that were significantly more attractive than clean-shaven bodies. However, there was no effect of fertility on women's preferences for men's beard or body hair distribution. These results suggest that the distribution of facial and body hair influences male attractiveness to women, possibly as an indication of masculine development and the synthesis of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via 5α reductase.


The Cardamine hirsuta genome offers insight into the evolution of morphological diversity Link logo

Gan, Xiangchao; Hay, Angela; Kwantes, Michiel; Haberer, Georg; Hallab, Asis; Dello Ioio, Raffaele; Hofhuis, Hugo; Pieper, Bjorn; Cartolano, Maria; Neumann, Ulla; Nikolov, Lachezar A.; Song, Baoxing; Hajheidari, Mohsen; Briskine, Roman; Kougioumoutzi, Evangelia; Vlad, Daniela; Broholm, Suvi; Hein, Jotun; Meksem, Khalid; Lightfoot, David

Nature Plants Volume 2, Issue 11

  • 60 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 57 Mendeley-lukijaa

Finding causal relationships between genotypic and phenotypic variation is a key focus of evolutionary biology, human genetics and plant breeding. To identify genome-wide patterns underlying trait diversity, we assembled a high-quality reference genome of Cardamine hirsuta, a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We combined comparative genome and transcriptome analyses with the experimental tools available in C. hirsuta to investigate gene function and phenotypic diversification. Our findings highlight the prevalent role of transcription factors and tandem gene duplications in morphological evolution. We identified a specific role for the transcriptional regulators PLETHORA5/7 in shaping leaf diversity and link tandem gene duplication with differential gene expression in the explosive seed pod of C. hirsuta. Our work highlights the value of comparative approaches in genetically tractable species to understand the genetic basis for evolutionary change.


"Every Gene Is Everywhere but the Environment Selects":Global Geolocalization of Gene Sharing in Environmental Samples through Network Analysis Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Fondi, Marco; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu V.; Bosi, Emanuele; Virta, Marko; Fani, Renato; Alm, Eric; McInerney, James O.

Genome Biology & Evolution Volume 8, Issue 5, Pages 1388–1400

  • 57 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 59 Mendeley-lukijaa

The spatial distribution of microbes on our planet is famously formulated in the Baas Becking hypothesis as "everything is everywhere but the environment selects." While this hypothesis does not strictly rule out patterns caused by geographical effects on ecology and historical founder effects, it does propose that the remarkable dispersal potential of microbes leads to distributions generally shaped by environmental factors rather than geographical distance. By constructing sequence similarity networks from uncultured environmental samples, we show that microbial gene pool distributions are not influenced nearly as much by geography as ecology, thus extending the Bass Becking hypothesis from whole organisms to microbial genes. We find that gene pools are shaped by their broad ecological niche (such as sea water, fresh water, host, and airborne). We find that freshwater habitats act as a gene exchange bridge between otherwise disconnected habitats. Finally, certain antibiotic resistance genes deviate from the general trend of habitat specificity by exhibiting a high degree of cross-habitat mobility. The strong cross-habitat mobility of antibiotic resistance genes is a cause for concern and provides a paradigmatic example of the rate by which genes colonize new habitats when new selective forces emerge.


Coevolution of parental investment and sexually selected traits drives sex-role divergence Open access logo Link logo

Fromhage, Lutz;Jennions, Michael D.

Nature Communications

  • 56 twiittiä
  • 2 uutista
  • 36 Mendeley-lukijaa

Sex-role evolution theory attempts to explain the origin and direction of male-female differences. A fundamental question is why anisogamy, the difference in gamete size that defines the sexes, has repeatedly led to large differences in subsequent parental care. Here we construct models to confirm predictions that individuals benefit less from caring when they face stronger sexual selection and/or lower certainty of parentage. However, we overturn the widely cited claim that a negative feedback between the operational sex ratio and the opportunity cost of care selects for egalitarian sex roles. We further argue that our model does not predict any effect of the adult sex ratio (ASR) that is independent of the source of ASR variation. Finally, to increase realism and unify earlier models, we allow for coevolution between parental investment and investment in sexually selected traits. Our model confirms that small initial differences in parental investment tend to increase due to positive evolutionary feedback, formally supporting long-standing, but unsubstantiated, verbal arguments.


Temperature-dependent mutational robustness can explain faster molecular evolution at warm temperatures, affecting speciation rate and global patterns of species diversity Link logo PDF logo

Puurtinen, Mikael; Elo, Merja; Jalasvuori, Matti; Kahilainen, Aapo; Ketola, Tarmo; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Monkkonen, Mikko; Pentikainen, Olli T.

Ecography Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages n/a–n/a

  • 56 twiittiä
  • 30 Mendeley-lukijaa


Search for Narrow Resonances Decaying to Dijets in Proton-Proton Collisions at root s=13 TeV Link logo PDF logo

Khatchatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; ,

Physical Review Letters Volume 116, Issue 7

  • 56 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 1 uutinen
  • 23 Mendeley-lukijaa

A search for narrow resonances in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV is presented. The invariant mass distribution of the two leading jets is measured with the CMS detector using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4  fb^{-1}. The highest observed dijet mass is 6.1 TeV. The distribution is smooth and no evidence for resonant particles is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section for narrow resonances with masses above 1.5 TeV. When interpreted in the context of specific models, the limits exclude string resonances with masses below 7.0 TeV, scalar diquarks below 6.0 TeV, axigluons and colorons below 5.1 TeV, excited quarks below 5.0 TeV, color-octet scalars below 3.1 TeV, and W^{'} bosons below 2.6 TeV. These results significantly extend previously published limits.


Mitochondrial ROS produced via reverse electron transport extend animal lifespan Link logo PDF logo

Filippo Scialò, Ashwin Sriram, Daniel Fernández-Ayala, Nina Gubina, Madis Lõhmus, Glyn Nelson, Angela Logan, Helen M. Cooper, Plácido Navas, Jose Antonio Enríquez, Michael P. Murphy, Alberto Sanz

Cell Metabolism (Science Direct) Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 725–734

  • 55 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 1 uutinen
  • 116 Mendeley-lukijaa

Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging.


An expanded evaluation of protein function prediction methods shows an improvement in accuracy Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Jiang, Yuxiang; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Clark, Wyatt T.; Bankapur, Asma R.; D'Andrea, Daniel; Lepore, Rosalba; Funk, Christopher S.; Kahanda, Indika; Verspoor, Karin M.; Ben-Hur, Asa; Koo, Da Chen Emily; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Shasha, Dennis; Youngs, Noah; Bonneau, Richard; Lin, Alexandra; Sahraeian, Sayed M. E.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Casadio, Rita

Genome Biology (Online Edition) Volume 17, Issue 1

  • 55 twiittiä

A major bottleneck in our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of life is the assignment of function to proteins. While molecular experiments provide the most reliable annotation of proteins, their relatively low throughput and restricted purview have led to an increasing role for computational function prediction. However, assessing methods for protein function prediction and tracking progress in the field remain challenging. We conducted the second critical assessment of functional annotation (CAFA), a timed challenge to assess computational methods that automatically assign protein function. We evaluated 126 methods from 56 research groups for their ability to predict biological functions using Gene Ontology and gene-disease associations using Human Phenotype Ontology on a set of 3681 proteins from 18 species. CAFA2 featured expanded analysis compared with CAFA1, with regards to data set size, variety, and assessment metrics. To review progress in the field, the analysis compared the best methods from CAFA1 to those of CAFA2. The top-performing methods in CAFA2 outperformed those from CAFA1. This increased accuracy can be attributed to a combination of the growing number of experimental annotations and improved methods for function prediction. The assessment also revealed that the definition of top-performing algorithms is ontology specific, that different performance metrics can be used to probe the nature of accurate predictions, and the relative diversity of predictions in the biological process and human phenotype ontologies. While there was methodological improvement between CAFA1 and CAFA2, the interpretation of results and usefulness of individual methods remain context-dependent.


Wood warblers copy settlement decisions of poor quality conspecifics: support for the tradeoff between the benefit of social information use and competition avoidance PDF logo

Szymkowiak J, Thomson RL, Kuczynski L

Oikos Volume 125, Issue 11, Pages n/a–n/a

  • 54 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 18 Mendeley-lukijaa


Living beyond the limits of survival:wood ants trapped in a gigantic pitfall Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Czechowski, Wojciech; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Stephan, Wojciech; Vepsäläinen, Kari

Journal of Hymenoptera Research

  • 53 twiittiä
  • 6 bloggausta
  • 30 uutista
  • 1 viittaus Wikipediassa
  • 12 Mendeley-lukijaa


Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music

Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Volume 139, Issue 3, Pages 1214–1224

  • 52 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 7 uutista
  • 31 Mendeley-lukijaa

An audience's auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acoustic effects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first experiment, and in the second test, the subjects assess the experienced subjective impact by paired comparisons. The results showed that the sound of some traditional rectangular halls provides greater psychophysiological responses and subjective impact. These findings provide a quintessential explanation for these halls' success and reveal the overall significance of room acoustics for emotional experience in music performance.


Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle PDF logo

Balotari-Chiebao F, Brommer JE, Niinimäki T, Laaksonen T

Animal Conservation Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 265–272

  • 52 twiittiä
  • 2 uutista
  • 58 Mendeley-lukijaa


The anatomical placode in reptile scale morphogenesis indicates shared ancestry among skin appendages in amniotes Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Di Poi, Nicholas; Milinkovitch, Michel

Science Advances Volume 2, Issue 6, Pages e1600708–e1600708

  • 52 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 43 uutista
  • 50 Mendeley-lukijaa

Most mammals, birds, and reptiles are readily recognized by their hairs, feathers, and scales, respectively. However, the lack of fossil intermediate forms between scales and hairs and substantial differences in their morphogenesis and protein composition have fueled the controversy pertaining to their potential common ancestry for decades. Central to this debate is the apparent lack of an "anatomical placode" (that is, a local epidermal thickening characteristic of feathers' and hairs' early morphogenesis) in reptile scale development. Hence, scenarios have been proposed for the independent development of the anatomical placode in birds and mammals and parallel co-option of similar signaling pathways for their morphogenesis. Using histological and molecular techniques on developmental series of crocodiles and snakes, as well as of unique wild-type and EDA (ectodysplasin A)-deficient scaleless mutant lizards, we show for the first time that reptiles, including crocodiles and squamates, develop all the characteristics of an anatomical placode: columnar cells with reduced proliferation rate, as well as canonical spatial expression of placode and underlying dermal molecular markers. These results reveal a new evolutionary scenario where hairs, feathers, and scales of extant species are homologous structures inherited, with modification, from their shared reptilian ancestor's skin appendages already characterized by an anatomical placode and associated signaling molecules.


Uncovering hidden spatial structure in species communities with spatially explicit joint species distribution models Link logo PDF logo

Ovaskainen, Otso; Roy, David B.; Fox, Richard; Anderson, Barbara J.

Methods in Ecology and Evolution Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 428–436

  • 51 twiittiä
  • 4 bloggausta
  • 140 Mendeley-lukijaa


Calling Dunbar's numbers Open access logo PDF logo

Mac Carron, P.; Kaski, K.; Dunbar, R.

Social Networks

  • 49 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 24 uutista
  • 27 Mendeley-lukijaa


Generic temporal features of performance rankings in sports and games Open access logo PDF logo

Morales, José A.; Sánchez, Sergio; Flores, Jorge; Pineda, Carlos; Gershenson, Carlos; Cocho, Germinal; Zizumbo, Jerónimo; Rodríguez, Rosalío F.; Iñiguez, Gerardo

EPJ Data Science

  • 49 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 9 uutista
  • 6 Mendeley-lukijaa


The PLETHORA gene regulatory network guides growth and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis roots Link logo PDF logo

Santuari, Luca; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino F.; Luijten, Marijn; Rutjens, Bas; Terpstra, Inez; Berke, Lidija; Gorte, Maartje; Prasad, Kalika; Bao, Dongping; Timmermans-Hereijgers, Johanna L.P.M.; Maeo, Kenichiro; Nakamura, Kenzo; Shimotohno, Akie; Pencik, Ales; Novak, Ondrej; Ljung, Karin; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; de Bruijn, Ewart; Cuppen, Edwin; Willemsen, Viola

Plant Cell

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  • 79 Mendeley-lukijaa

Organ formation in animals and plants relies on precise control of cell state transitions to turn stem cell daughters into fully differentiated cells. In plants, cells cannot rearrange due to shared cell walls. Thus, differentiation progression and the accompanying cell expansion must be tightly coordinated across tissues. PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factor gradients are unique in their ability to guide the progression of cell differentiation at different positions in the growing Arabidopsis root, which contrasts with well-described transcription factor gradients in animals specifying distinct cell fates within an essentially static context. To understand the output of the PLT gradient, we studied the gene set transcriptionally controlled by PLTs. Our work reveals how the PLT gradient can regulate cell state by region-specific induction of cell proliferation genes and repression of differentiation. Moreover, PLT targets include major patterning genes and autoregulatory feedback components, enforcing their role as master regulators of organ development.


Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity Link logo PDF logo

Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 39

  • 49 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 5 uutista
  • 1 viittaus Wikipediassa
  • 79 Mendeley-lukijaa

At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.


Super-catastrophic disruption of asteroids at small perihelion distances Link logo

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlicky, David; Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick

Nature Volume 530, Issue 7590, Pages 303–306

  • 49 twiittiä
  • 5 bloggausta
  • 44 uutista
  • 16 Mendeley-lukijaa

Most near-Earth objects came from the asteroid belt and drifted via non-gravitational thermal forces into resonant escape routes that, in turn, pushed them onto planet-crossing orbits. Models predict that numerous asteroids should be found on orbits that closely approach the Sun, but few have been seen. In addition, even though the near-Earth-object population in general is an even mix of low-albedo (less than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) and high-albedo (more than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) asteroids, the characterized asteroids near the Sun typically have high albedos. Here we report a quantitative comparison of actual asteroid detections and a near-Earth-object model (which accounts for observational selection effects). We conclude that the deficit of low-albedo objects near the Sun arises from the super-catastrophic breakup (that is, almost complete disintegration) of a substantial fraction of asteroids when they achieve perihelion distances of a few tens of solar radii. The distance at which destruction occurs is greater for smaller asteroids, and their temperatures during perihelion passages are too low for evaporation to explain their disappearance. Although both bright and dark (high- and low-albedo) asteroids eventually break up, we find that low-albedo asteroids are more likely to be destroyed farther from the Sun, which explains the apparent excess of high-albedo near-Earth objects and suggests that low-albedo asteroids break up more easily as a result of thermal effects.


Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales Link logo PDF logo

Jorgensen, Peter Sogaard; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tottrup, Anders P.; Chylarecki, Przemyslaw; Jiguet, Frederic; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G.; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J.; Foppen, Ruud; Vorisek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D.; Rahbek, Carsten

Global Change Biology Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 530–543

  • 49 twiittiä
  • 3 bloggausta
  • 12 uutista
  • 94 Mendeley-lukijaa

Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys.


Back to the future of soil metagenomics Open access logo Link logo

Nesme, Joseph; Achouak, Wafa; Agathos, Spiros N.; Bailey, Mark J.; Baldrian, Petr et al.,

Frontiers in Microbiology

  • 48 twiittiä
  • 183 Mendeley-lukijaa


The world's road to water scarcity Shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability Open access logo

Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H A; De Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I E; Ward, P. J.

Scientific Reports

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  • 38 Mendeley-lukijaa

Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.


Dung beetle species interactions and multifunctionality are affected by an experimentally warmed climate Link logo PDF logo

Slade, Eleanor Margaret; Roslin, Tomas Valter

Oikos Volume 125, Issue 11, Pages 1607–1616

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  • 20 Mendeley-lukijaa


Global Emergence and Dissemination of Enterococci as Nosocomial Pathogens:Attack of the Clones? Open access logo Link logo

Prieto, Ana M. Guzman; van Schaik, Willem; Rogers, Malbert R. C.; Coque, Teresa M.; Baquero, Fernando; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J. L.

Frontiers in Microbiology

  • 48 twiittiä
  • 43 Mendeley-lukijaa

Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are found in plants, soil and as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, mammals, and insects. Despite their commensal nature, they have also become globally important nosocomial pathogens. Within the genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are clinically most relevant. In this review, we will discuss how E. faecium and E. faecalis have evolved to become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium has a defined sub-population that is associated with hospitalized patients and is rarely encountered in community settings. These hospital-associated clones are characterized by the acquisition of adaptive genetic elements, including genes involved in metabolism, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In contrast to E. faecium, clones of E. faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients, including strains causing clinical infections, are not exclusively found in hospitals but are also present in healthy individuals and animals. This observation suggests that the division between commensals and hospital-adapted lineages is less clear for E. faecalis than for E. faecium. In addition, genes that are reported to be associated with virulence of E. faecalis are often not unique to clinical isolates, but are also found in strains that originate from commensal niches. As a reflection of more ancient association of E. faecalis with different hosts, these determinants Thus, they may not represent genuine virulence genes but may act as host-adaptive functions that are useful in a variety of intestinal environments. The scope of the review is to summarize recent trends in the emergence of antibiotic resistance and explore recent developments in the molecular epidemiology, population structure and mechanisms of adaptation of E. faecium and E. faecalis.


Buried alive: microbes from ancient halite Link logo PDF logo

Jaakkola, Salla T.; Ravantti, Janne J.; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.

Trends in Microbiology Volume 24, Issue 2

  • 48 twiittiä
  • 32 Mendeley-lukijaa

Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed.


A catalogue of marine biodiversity indicators PDF logo

Teixeira, Heliana; Berg, Torsten; Uusitalo, Laura; Fürhaupter, Karin; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Mazik, Krysia; Lynam, Christopher P.; Neville, Suzanna; Rodriguez, J. German; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Moncheva, Snejana; Churilova, Tanya; Kryvenko, Olga; Krause-J

Frontiers in Marine Science

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  • 26 Mendeley-lukijaa


Moving superhydrophobic surfaces toward real-world applications PDF logo

Tian, Xuelin; Verho, Tuukka; Ras, Robin H A

Science Volume 352, Issue 6282

  • 47 twiittiä
  • 12 uutista
  • 79 Mendeley-lukijaa


User Studies in IR Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Ferro Nicola; Fuhr Norbert; Järvelin Kalervo; Kando Noriko; Lippold Matthias

Dagstuhl Reports

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  • 1 bloggaus
  • 11 Mendeley-lukijaa


Urban point sources of nutrients were the leading cause for the historical spread of hypoxia across European lakes PDF logo

Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Normandeau, Alexandre; Francus, Pierre; Taranu, Zofia Ecaterina; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lapointe, François; Jautzy, Josue; Ojala, Antti E. K; Dorioz, Dean-Marcel; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Zolitschka, Bernd

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume 113, Issue 45

  • 47 twiittiä
  • 8 uutista
  • 34 Mendeley-lukijaa

Enhanced phosphorus (P) export from land into streams and lakes is a primary factor driving the expansion of deep-water hypoxia in lakes during the Anthropocene. However, the interplay of regional scale environmental stressors and the lack of long-term instrumental data often impede analyses attempting to associate changes in land cover with downstream aquatic responses. Herein, we performed a synthesis of data that link paleolimnological reconstructions of lake bottom-water oxygenation to changes in land cover/use and climate over the past 300 years to evaluate whether the spread of hypoxia in European lakes was primarily associated with enhanced P exports from growing urbanization, intensified agriculture, or climatic change. We showed that hypoxia started spreading in European lakes around CE 1850 and was greatly accelerated after CE 1900. Socioeconomic changes in Europe beginning in CE 1850 resulted in widespread urbanization, as well as a larger and more intensively cultivated surface area. However, our analysis of temporal trends demonstrated that the onset and intensification of lacustrine hypoxia were more strongly related to the growth of urban areas than to changes in agricultural areas and the application of fertilizers. These results suggest that anthropogenically triggered hypoxia in European lakes was primarily caused by enhanced P discharges from urban point sources. To date, there have been no signs of sustained recovery of bottom-water oxygenation in lakes following the enactment of European water legislation in the 1970s to 1980s, and the subsequent decrease in domestic P consumption.


Photo-ID as a tool for studying and monitoring the endangered Saimaa ringed seal Open access logo PDF logo

Koivuniemi Meeri, Auttila Miina, Niemi Marja, Levänen Riikka, Kunnasranta Mervi

Endangered Species Research

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  • 16 Mendeley-lukijaa


Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe Link logo

Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha Antero; Lakatos, Mónika ; Rymszewicz, Anna ; Dumitrescu, Alexandru ; Tadić, Melita Perčec ; Diodato, Nazzareno ; Kostalova, Julia ; Rousseva, Svetla ; Banasik, Kazimierz ; Alewell, Christine

Science of the Total Environment

  • 47 twiittiä
  • 13 Mendeley-lukijaa

Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha(-1)h(-1)) compared to winter (87MJmmha(-1)h(-1)). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R(2) values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be applied in different seasons of the year.


One fly to rule them all-muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic Link logo PDF logo

Tiusanen, Mikko; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Roslin, Tomas

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Volume 283, Issue 1839

  • 46 twiittiä
  • 2 bloggausta
  • 9 uutista
  • 29 Mendeley-lukijaa

Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas across 15 sites at Zackenberg, northeast Greenland, and used sticky flower mimics and DNA barcoding to describe the flower-visiting community at each site. To evaluate the consequences of shifts in pollinator phenology under climate change, we compared the flower visitors between the early and the late season. Our approach revealed a diverse community of insects visiting Dryas, including two-thirds of all insect species known from the area. Even against this diverse background, the abundance of muscid flies emerged as a key predictor for seed set in Dryas, whereas overall insect abundance and species richness had little or no effect. With muscid flies as the main drivers of the pollinating function in the High Arctic, a recently observed decline in their abundances offers cause for concern.


Understanding the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions across scales Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Penczykowski, Rachel M.; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Koskella, Britt

Evolutionary Applications Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 37–52

  • 46 twiittiä
  • 137 Mendeley-lukijaa

Predicting the emergence, spread and evolution of parasites within and among host populations requires insight to both the spatial and temporal scales of adaptation, including an understanding of within-host up through community-level dynamics. Although there are very few pathosystems for which such extensive data exist, there has been a recent push to integrate studies performed over multiple scales or to simultaneously test for dynamics occurring across scales. Drawing on examples from the literature, with primary emphasis on three diverse host-parasite case studies, we first examine current understanding of the spatial structure of host and parasite populations, including patterns of local adaptation and spatial variation in host resistance and parasite infectivity. We then explore the ways to measure temporal variation and dynamics in host-parasite interactions and discuss the need to examine change over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. Finally, we highlight new approaches and syntheses that allow for simultaneous analysis of dynamics across scales. We argue that there is great value in examining interplay among scales in studies of host-parasite interactions.


Price versus value of marine monitoring PDF logo

Nygård, Henrik; Oinonen, Soile; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Hällfors, Heidi A.; Rantajärvi, Eija; Uusitalo, Laura

Frontiers in Marine Science

  • 45 twiittiä
  • 13 Mendeley-lukijaa


Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds Link logo PDF logo

Meller, Kalle; Vahatalo, Anssi V.; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

Journal of Animal Ecology Volume 85, Issue 2, Pages 570–580

  • 45 twiittiä
  • 24 Mendeley-lukijaa

1.Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. 2.We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. 3.The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundances by the preceding breeding abundances. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering, explain the inter-annual variation in PoR. Second, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. 4.Early-winter temperature explained the inter-annual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, thus we conclude that variation in food availability caused the inter-annual variation in PoR. During the study period PoR increased in waterbirds but did not change in terrestrial birds. 5.Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Bridging the gap between policy and science in assessing the health status of marine ecosystems PDF logo

Borja, Àngel; Elliott, Michael; Snelgrove, Paul V.R.; Austen, Melanie C.; Berg, Torsten; Cochrane, Sabine; Carstensen, Jacob; Roberto, Danovaro; Greenstreet, Simon; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Lynam, Christopher P.; Mea, Marianna; Newton, Alice; Patrício, J

Frontiers in Marine Science

  • 44 twiittiä
  • 52 Mendeley-lukijaa


Succinate Dehydrogenase Supports Metabolic Repurposing of Mitochondria to Drive Inflammatory Macrophages Link logo PDF logo

Mills, Evanna L.; Kelly, Beth; Logan, Angela; Costa, Ana S. H.; Varma, Mukund; Bryant, Clare E.; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Dabritz, J. Henry M.; Gottlieb, Eyal; Latorre, Isabel; Corr, Sinead C.; McManus, Gavin; Ryan, Dylan; Jacobs, Howard T.; Szibor, Marten; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Braun, Thomas; Frezza, Christian; Murphy, Michael P.; O'Neill, Luke A.

Cell Volume 167, Issue 2

  • 44 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 18 uutista
  • 190 Mendeley-lukijaa

Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. RNA sequencing reveals that this combination induces a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile, while an inhibitor of succinate oxidation, dimethyl malonate (DMM), promotes an anti-inflammatory outcome. Blocking ROS production with rotenone by uncoupling mitochondria or by expressing the alternative oxidase (AOX) inhibits this inflammatory phenotype, with AOX protecting mice from LPS lethality. The metabolic alterations that occur upon activation of macrophages therefore repurpose mitochondria from ATP synthesis to ROS production in order to promote a pro-inflammatory state.


Event generator tunes obtained from underlying event and multiparton scattering measurements Open access logo Link logo PDF logo

Khatchatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.

European Physical Journal C -- Particles & Fields Volume 76, Issue 3

  • 44 twiittiä
  • 23 Mendeley-lukijaa

New sets of parameters ("tunes") for the underlying-event (UE) modelling of the pythia8, pythia6 and herwig++ Monte Carlo event generators are constructed using different parton distribution functions. Combined fits to CMS UE proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) data at [Formula: see text] and to UE proton-antiproton ([Formula: see text]) data from the CDF experiment at lower [Formula: see text], are used to study the UE models and constrain their parameters, providing thereby improved predictions for proton-proton collisions at 13[Formula: see text]. In addition, it is investigated whether the values of the parameters obtained from fits to UE observables are consistent with the values determined from fitting observables sensitive to double-parton scattering processes. Finally, comparisons are presented of the UE tunes to "minimum bias" (MB) events, multijet, and Drell-Yan ([Formula: see text] lepton-antilepton+jets) observables at 7 and 8[Formula: see text], as well as predictions for MB and UE observables at 13[Formula: see text].


Integrating plant- and animal-based perspectives for more effective restoration of biodiversity Link logo PDF logo

McAlpine, Clive; Catterall, Carla P.; Mac Nally, Ralph; Lindenmayer, David; Reid, J. Leighton; Holl, Karen D.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Wilson, Kerrie; Hobbs, Richard J.; Seabrook, Leonie; Cunningham, Shaun; Moilanen, Atte; Maron, Martine; Shoo, Luke; Lunt, Ian; Vesk, Peter; Rumpff, Libby; Martin, Tara G.; Thomson, James

Frontiers in Ecology & the Environment Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 37–45

  • 44 twiittiä
  • 103 Mendeley-lukijaa


Modelling trading networks and the role of trust PDF logo

Barrio, Rafael; Govezensky, Tzipe; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego ; Kaski, Kimmo

arXiv

  • 43 twiittiä
  • 1 uutinen
  • 9 Mendeley-lukijaa


OSSOS. IV. DISCOVERY OF A DWARF PLANET CANDIDATE IN THE 9:2 RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE Link logo PDF logo

Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan D.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley C.; Gladman, Brett J.; Granvik, Mikael; Grundy, Will M.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jakubik, Marian; Jones, R. Lynne; Kaib, Nathan; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lacerda, Pedro; Lawler, Samantha; Lehner, Matthew J.; Lin, Hsing Wen

The Astronomical Journal Volume 152, Issue 6

  • 43 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 6 uutista
  • 1 viittaus Wikipediassa
  • 6 Mendeley-lukijaa


Academic domains as political battlegrounds A global enquiry by 99 academics in the fields of education and technology Link logo PDF logo

Al Lily, Abdulrahman E. ; Foland, Jed; Stoloff, David; Malmi, Lauri; (listed in paper), 95 other authors

Information Development

  • 42 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 5 Mendeley-lukijaa


The 'Extreme Female Brain' : Increased Cognitive Empathy as a Dimension of Psychopathology Link logo PDF logo

Dinsdale, Natalie;Mökkönen, Mikael;Crespi, Bernard

Evolution & Human Behavior Volume 37, Issue 4, Pages 323–336

  • 42 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 49 Mendeley-lukijaa


Domesticated animal biobanking: land of opportunity Open access logo PDF logo

Groeneveld LF, Gregusson S, Guldbrandtsen B, Hiemstra SJ, Hveem K, Kantanen J, Lohi H, Stroemstedt L, Berg P

PLoS Biology Volume 14, Issue 7

  • 42 twiittiä
  • 1 bloggaus
  • 9 Mendeley-lukijaa

In the past decade, biobanking has fuelled great scientific advances in the human medical sector. Well-established domesticated animal biobanks and integrated networks likewise harbour immense potential for great scientific advances with broad societal impacts, which are currently not being fully realised. Political and scientific leaders as well as journals and ethics committees should help to ensure that we are well equipped to meet future demands in livestock production, animal models, and veterinary care of companion animals.


Progress to extinction:increased specialisation causes the demise of animal clades Open access logo Link logo

Raia, P.; Carotenuto, F.; Mondanaro, A.; Castiglione, S.; Passaro, F.; Saggese, F.; Melchionna, M.; Serio, C.; Alessio, L.; Silvestro, D.; Fortelius, M.

Scientific Reports

  • 42 twiittiä
  • 33 Mendeley-lukijaa

Animal clades tend to follow a predictable path of waxing and waning during their existence, regardless of their total species richness or geographic coverage. Clades begin small and undifferentiated, then expand to a peak in diversity and range, only to shift into a rarely broken decline towards extinction. While this trajectory is now well documented and broadly recognised, the reasons underlying it remain obscure. In particular, it is unknown why clade extinction is universal and occurs with such surprising regularity. Current explanations for paleontological extinctions call on the growing costs of biological interactions, geological accidents, evolutionary traps, and mass extinctions. While these are effective causes of extinction, they mainly apply to species, not clades. Although mass extinctions is the undeniable cause for the demise of a sizeable number of major taxa, we show here that clades escaping them go extinct because of the widespread tendency of evolution to produce increasingly specialised, sympatric, and geographically restricted species over time.


Evolutionary and Epidemiological Implications of Multiple Infection in Plants Link logo PDF logo

Tollenaere, Charlotte; Susi, Hanna; Laine, Anna-Liisa

Trends in Plant Science Volume 21, Issue 1

  • 42 twiittiä
  • 60 Mendeley-lukijaa

Recent methodological advances have uncovered tremendous microbial diversity cohabiting in the same host plant, and many of these microbes cause disease. In this review we highlight how the presence of other pathogen species, or other pathogen genotypes, within a plant can affect key components of host-pathogen interactions: (i) within-plant virulence and pathogen accumulation, through direct and host-mediated mechanisms; (ii) evolutionary trajectories of pathogen populations, through virulence evolution, generation of novel genetic combinations, and maintenance of genetic diversity; and (iii) disease dynamics, with multiple infection likely to render epidemics more devastating. The major future challenges are to couple a community ecology approach with a molecular investigation of the mechanisms operating under coinfection and to evaluate the evolution and effectiveness of resistance within a coinfection framework.


Sivuston aineiston lähteinä Altmetric.com ja CSC (VIRTA)

Sivuston aineiston lähteinä Altmetric.com [altmetric.com] ja CSC (VIRTA) [www.csc.fi/-/virta]