Growing time lag threatens Nobels

Fortunato, Santo; Chatterjee, Arnab; Mitrovic, Marija; Pan, Raj Kumar; Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Becattini, Francesco

Nature Volume 508, Issue 7495, Pages 186–186

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Reputation and impact in academic careers PDF logo

Petersen, Alexander M.; Fortunato, Santo; Pan, Raj Kumar; Kaski, Kimmo; Penner, Orion; Rungi, Armando; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H.Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication's citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author's reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science.

A Community Information System for Ubiquitous Informal Learning Support

Bauters, Merja; Nicolaescu, Petru ; Renzel, Dominik; Koren, István; Klamma, Ralf; Purma, Jukka

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Curb vast water use in central Asia Open access logo Link logo

Varis, Olli

Nature Volume 514, Issue 7520, Pages 27–29

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Factors Related to Sustained Use of a Free Mobile App for Dietary Self-Monitoring With Photography and Peer Feedback: Retrospective Cohort Study Link logo

Helander, Elina; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Wasink, Brian

Journal of Medical Internet Research Volume 16, Issue 4

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Healthy eating interventions that use behavior change techniques such as self-monitoring and feedback have been associated with stronger effects. Mobile apps can make dietary self-monitoring easy with photography and potentially reach huge populations.

Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

Lahnakoski, J.; Glerean, E.G.; Jääskeläinen, I.P.; Hyönä, J.; Hari, R.; Sams, M.; Nummenmaa, L.

NeuroImage Volume 100, Issue 100

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For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a 'social' (detective) and once a 'non-social' (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions--most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex--when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment.

Mental Action Simulation Synchronizes Action-Observation Circuits across Individuals Link logo PDF logo

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Smirnov, Dmitry; Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta

Journal of Neuroscience Volume 34, Issue 3

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A frontoparietal action-observation network (AON) has been proposed to support understanding others' actions and goals. We show that the AON "ticks together" in human subjects who are sharing a third person's feelings. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 20 volunteers watched movies depicting boxing matches passively or while simulating a prespecified boxer's feelings. Instantaneous intersubject phase synchronization (ISPS) was computed to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity of hemodynamic activity and inter-area functional connectivity. During passive viewing, subjects' brain activity was synchronized in sensory projection and posterior temporal cortices. Simulation induced widespread increase of ISPS in the AON (premotor, posterior parietal, and superior temporal cortices), primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and the dorsal attention circuits (frontal eye fields, intraparietal sulcus). Moreover, interconnectivity of these regions strengthened during simulation. We propose that sharing a third person's feelings synchronizes the observer's own brain mechanisms supporting sensations and motor planning, thereby likely promoting mutual understanding.

Community detection in networks: Structural communities versus ground truth Link logo PDF logo

Hric, Darko; Darst, Richard K.; Fortunato, Santo

Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Volume 90, Issue 6

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Spatial patterns of close relationships across the lifespan

Jo, Hang-Hyun; Saramäki, Jari; Dunbar, Robin I.M.; Kaski, Kimmo

Scientific Reports

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The dynamics of close relationships is important for understanding the migration patterns of individual life-courses. The bottom-up approach to this subject by social scientists has been limited by sample size, while the more recent top-down approach using large-scale datasets suffers from a lack of detail about the human individuals. We incorporate the geographic and demographic information of millions of mobile phone users with their communication patterns to study the dynamics of close relationships and its effect in their life-course migration. We demonstrate how the close age- and sex-biased dyadic relationships are correlated with the geographic proximity of the pair of individuals, e.g., young couples tend to live further from each other than old couples. In addition, we find that emotionally closer pairs are living geographically closer to each other. These findings imply that the life-course framework is crucial for understanding the complex dynamics of close relationships and their effect on the migration patterns of human individuals.

Catching two European birds with one renewable stone: Mitigating climate change and Eurozone crisis by an energy transition Open access logo

Creutzig Felix;Goldschmidt Jan Christoph;Lehmann Paul;Schmid Eva;Blücher Felix;Breyer Christian;Fernandez Blanca;Jakob Michael;Knopf Brigitte;Lohrey Steffen;Susca Tiziana;Wiegandt Konstantin

Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

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Improving the performance of algorithms to find communities in networks

Darst, R.K.; Nussinov, Z.; Fortunato, Santo

Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Volume 89, Issue 3

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