Most studies examining female sexual functions (FSFs) have used cross-sectional designs, not allowing for studying temporal stability and possible relationships between different FSFs over time. Our aim was to study these relationships using a longitudinal approach.
The study sample consisted of 2173 Finnish women from two large-scale, population-based data collections 7 years apart. The Female Sexual Function Index was used. Analyses were further conducted separately for women in different relationship constellations.
Standardized autoregressive paths ranged from 0.136 (sexual satisfaction) to 0.447 (orgasm function) in the full sample, suggesting that most of the variance in FSF was explained by something other than previous function. Orgasm, desire and satisfaction were the strongest predictors of other functions in the full sample and for women in the same relationship at both time points (higher orgasm function predicted higher function in other domains; greater sexual desire and satisfaction predicted lower function in other domains), however, with small effects sizes. For single women, orgasm function and sexual desire were the only significant autoregressive paths. Significant unidirectional cross-domain paths were found for women in the same relationship at both time points. One significant cross-domain path, not confirmed as unidirectional, was found for single women.
FSFs varied considerably over 7 years and relationship status was of importance when assessing temporal stability and cross-domain effects. Our results advocate tailored psychobehavioural treatment interventions for female sexual dysfunctions that take partner-specific factors into account.
The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.