An integrated approach, which combined freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment, was investigated in the present study. The characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nutrient removal were examined by using tubular bubble column photobioreactors to cultivate C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater with six different concentrations. Pollutants in piggery wastewater were efficiently removed among all the treatments. The specific growth rate and biomass productivity were different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration increased, the lipid content of C. zofingiensis decreased. The differences in lipid and biodiesel productivity of C. zofingiensis among all the treatments mainly resulted from the differences in biomass productivity. It is worthy of note that the diluted piggery wastewater with 1900 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for C. zofingiensis cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient removal and the highest productivities of biomass, lipid and biodiesel were presented.
Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls.
Phase-contrast x-ray imaging (PCI) is an innovative method that is sensitive to the refraction of the x-rays in matter. PCI is particularly adapted to visualize weakly absorbing details like those often encountered in biology and medicine. In past years, PCI has become one of the most used imaging methods in laboratory and preclinical studies: its unique characteristics allow high contrast 3D visualization of thick and complex samples even at high spatial resolution. Applications have covered a wide range of pathologies and organs, and are more and more often performed in vivo. Several techniques are now available to exploit and visualize the phase-contrast: propagation- and analyzer-based, crystal and grating interferometry and non-interferometric methods like the coded aperture. In this review, covering the last five years, we will give an overview of the main theoretical and experimental developments and of the important steps performed towards the clinical implementation of PCI.
A solid-state anaerobic digestion method is used to produce biogas from various solid wastes in China but the efficiency of methane production requires constant improvement. The diversity and abundance of relevant microorganisms play important roles in methanogenesis of biomass. The next-generation high-throughput pyrosequencing platform (Roche/454 GS FLX Titanium) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel microbes within the biogas-generating microbial communities.
Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes.
Tissue optical clearing technique provides a prospective solution for the application of advanced optical methods in life sciences. This paper gives a review of recent developments in tissue optical clearing techniques. The physical, molecular and physiological mechanisms of tissue optical clearing are overviewed and discussed. Various methods for enhancing penetration of optical-clearing agents into tissue, such as physical methods, chemical-penetration enhancers and combination of physical and chemical methods are introduced. Combining the tissue optical clearing technique with advanced microscopy image or labeling technique, applications for 3D microstructure of whole tissues such as brain and central nervous system with unprecedented resolution are demonstrated. Moreover, the difference in diffusion and/or clearing ability of selected agents in healthy versus pathological tissues can provide a highly sensitive indicator of the tissue health/pathology condition. Finally, recent advances in optical clearing of soft or hard tissue for in vivo imaging and phototherapy are introduced. [Formula: see text].
Common risk factors such as obesity, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, stress, and sleep deprivation threaten the wellness and work ability of employees. Personal health technologies may help improve engagement in health promotion programs and maintenance of their effect.