Boyajian, T. S.; LaCourse, D. M.; Rappaport, S. A.; Fabrycky, D.; Fischer, D. A.; Gandolfi, D.; Kennedy, G. M.; Korhonen, H.; Liu, M. C.; Moor, A.; Olah, K.; Vida, K.; Wyatt, M. C.; Best, W. M. J.; Brewer, J.; Ciesla, F.; Csak, B.; Deeg, H. J.; Dupuy, T. J.; Handler, G.
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.
Leloudas G., Fraser M., Stone N. C., van Velzen S., Jonker P. G., Arcavi I., Fremling C., Maund J. R., Smartt S. J., Krìhler T., Miller-Jones J. C. A., Vreeswijk P. M., Gal-Yam A., Mazzali P. A., De Cia A., Howell D. A., Inserra C., Patat F., de Ugarte Postigo A., Yaron O., Ashall C., Bar I., Campbell H., Chen T.-W., Childress M., Elias-Rosa N., Harmanen J., Hosseinzadeh G., Johansson J., Kangas T., Kankare E., Kim S., Kuncarayakti H., Lyman J., Magee M. R., Maguire K., Malesani D., Mattila S., McCully C. V., Nicholl M., Prentice S., Romero-Cañizales C., Schulze S., Smith K. W., Sollerman J., Sullivan M., Tucker B. E., Valenti S., Wheeler J. C., Young D. R.
The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula) branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland) and 77 (Austria) individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria) or around (Finland) sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology.
Spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twinning occurs in 1%-4% of women, with familial clustering and unknown physiological pathways and genetic origin. DZ twinning might index increased fertility and has distinct health implications for mother and child. We performed a GWAS in 1,980 mothers of spontaneous DZ twins and 12,953 control subjects. Findings were replicated in a large Icelandic cohort and tested for association across a broad range of fertility traits in women. Two SNPs were identified (rs11031006 near FSHB, p = 1.54 × 10(-9), and rs17293443 in SMAD3, p = 1.57 × 10(-8)) and replicated (p = 3 × 10(-3) and p = 1.44 × 10(-4), respectively). Based on ∼90,000 births in Iceland, the risk of a mother delivering twins increased by 18% for each copy of allele rs11031006-G and 9% for rs17293443-C. A higher polygenic risk score (PRS) for DZ twinning, calculated based on the results of the DZ twinning GWAS, was significantly associated with DZ twinning in Iceland (p = 0.001). A higher PRS was also associated with having children (p = 0.01), greater lifetime parity (p = 0.03), and earlier age at first child (p = 0.02). Allele rs11031006-G was associated with higher serum FSH levels, earlier age at menarche, earlier age at first child, higher lifetime parity, lower PCOS risk, and earlier age at menopause. Conversely, rs17293443-C was associated with later age at last child. We identified robust genetic risk variants for DZ twinning: one near FSHB and a second within SMAD3, the product of which plays an important role in gonadal responsiveness to FSH. These loci contribute to crucial aspects of reproductive capacity and health.
OLSEN JL, ROUZÉ P, VERHELST B, LIN Y-C, BAYER T, COLLEN J, DATTOLO E, DE PAOLI E, DITTAMI S, MAUMUS F, MICHEL G, KERSTING A, LAURITANO C, LOHAUS R, TÖPEL M, TONON T, VANNESTE K, AMIREBRAHIMI M, BRAKEL J, BOSTRÖM C, CHOVATIA M, GRIMWOOD J, JENKINS JW, JÜTERBOCK A, MRAZ A, STAM WT, TICE H, BORNBERG-BAUER E, GREEN P, PEARSON GA, PROCCACINI G, DUARTE CM, SCHMUTZ J, REUSCH TBH & VAN DE PEER, Y
Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.
Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443-2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693-2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.
Deep sequencing of the gut microbiomes of 1135 participants from a Dutch population-based cohort shows relations between the microbiome and 126 exogenous and intrinsic host factors, including 31 intrinsic factors, 12 diseases, 19 drug groups, 4 smoking categories, and 60 dietary factors. These factors collectively explain 18.7% of the variation seen in the interindividual distance of microbial composition. We could associate 110 factors to 125 species and observed that fecal chromogranin A (CgA), a protein secreted by enteroendocrine cells, was exclusively associated with 61 microbial species whose abundance collectively accounted for 53% of microbial composition. Low CgA concentrations were seen in individuals with a more diverse microbiome. These results are an important step toward a better understanding of environment-diet-microbe-host interactions.
Fusion energy research has in the past 40 years focused primarily on the tokamak concept, but recent advances in plasma theory and computational power have led to renewed interest in stellarators. The largest and most sophisticated stellarator in the world, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), has just started operation, with the aim to show that the earlier weaknesses of this concept have been addressed successfully, and that the intrinsic advantages of the concept persist, also at plasma parameters approaching those of a future fusion power plant. Here we show the first physics results, obtained before plasma operation: that the carefully tailored topology of nested magnetic surfaces needed for good confinement is realized, and that the measured deviations are smaller than one part in 100,000. This is a significant step forward in stellarator research, since it shows that the complicated and delicate magnetic topology can be created and verified with the required accuracy.
Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution.
Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.
Abbott B. P., Abbott R., Abbott T. D., Abernathy M. R., Acernese F., Ackley K., Adams C., Adams T., Addesso P., Adhikari R. X., Adya V. B., Affeldt C., Agathos M., Agatsuma K., Aggarwal N., Aguiar O. D., Aiello L., Ain A., Ajith P., Allen B., Allocca A., Altin P. A., Anderson S. B., Anderson W. G., Arai K., Araya M. C., Arceneaux C. C., Areeda J. S., Arnaud N., Arun K. G., Ascenzi S., Ashton G., Ast M., Aston S. M., Astone P., Aufmuth P., Aulbert C., Babak S., Bacon P., Bader M. K. M., Baker P. T., Baldaccini F., Ballardin G., Ballmer S. W., Barayoga J. C., Barclay S. E., Barish B. C., Barker D., Barone F., Barr B., Barsotti L., Barsuglia M., Barta D., Barthelmy S., Bartlett J., Bartos I., Bassiri R., Basti A., Batch J. C., Baune C., Bavigadda V., Bazzan M., Behnke B., Bejger M., Bell A. S
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Volume 826, Issue 1
Rachel Barrow-McGee, Naoki Kishi, Carine Joffre, Ludovic Ménard, Alexia Hervieu, Bakhouche A. Bakhouche, Alejandro J. Noval, Anja Mai, Camilo Guzmán, Luisa Robbez-Masson, Xavier Iturrioz, James Hulit, Caroline H. Brennan, Ian R. Hart, Peter J. Parker, Johanna Ivaska, Stéphanie Kermorgant
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins cooperate to stimulate cell migration and tumour metastasis. Here we report that an integrin influences signalling of an RTK, c-Met, from inside the cell, to promote anchorage-independent cell survival. Thus, c-Met and β1-integrin co-internalize and become progressively recruited on LC3B-positive 'autophagy-related endomembranes' (ARE). In cells growing in suspension, β1-integrin promotes sustained c-Met-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation on ARE. This signalling is dependent on ATG5 and Beclin1 but not on ATG13, suggesting ARE belong to a non-canonical autophagy pathway. This β1-integrin-dependent c-Met-sustained signalling on ARE supports anchorage-independent cell survival and growth, tumorigenesis, invasion and lung colonization in vivo. RTK-integrin cooperation has been assumed to occur at the plasma membrane requiring integrin 'inside-out' or 'outside-in' signalling. Our results report a novel mode of integrin-RTK cooperation, which we term 'inside-in signalling'. Targeting integrin signalling in addition to adhesion may have relevance for cancer therapy.
Evans, Alistair R.; Daly, E. Susanne; Catlett, Kierstin K.; Paul, Kathleen S.; King, Stephen J.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Nesse, Hans P.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Townsend, Grant C.; Schwartz, Gary T.; Jernvall, Jukka
The variation in molar tooth size in humans and our closest relatives (hominins) has strongly influenced our view of human evolution. The reduction in overall size and disproportionate decrease in third molar size have been noted for over a century, and have been attributed to reduced selection for large dentitions owing to changes in diet or the acquisition of cooking. The systematic pattern of size variation along the tooth row has been described as a 'morphogenetic gradient' in mammal, and more specifically hominin, teeth since Butler and Dahlberg. However, the underlying controls of tooth size have not been well understood, with hypotheses ranging from morphogenetic fields to the clone theory. In this study we address the following question: are there rules that govern how hominin tooth size evolves? Here we propose that the inhibitory cascade, an activator-inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth (deciduous premolars and permanent molars) in hominins. This configuration is also equivalent to a morphogenetic gradient, finally pointing to a mechanism that can generate this gradient. The pattern of tooth size remains constant with absolute size in australopiths (including Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus). However, in species of Homo, including modern humans, there is a tight link between tooth proportions and absolute size such that a single developmental parameter can explain both the relative and absolute sizes of primary postcanine teeth. On the basis of the relationship of inhibitory cascade patterning with size, we can use the size at one tooth position to predict the sizes of the remaining four primary postcanine teeth in the row for hominins. Our study provides a development-based expectation to examine the evolution of the unique proportions of human teeth.